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1 The Management of Invasive Species in Marine & Coastal Environments Module 6 The International Response.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Management of Invasive Species in Marine & Coastal Environments Module 6 The International Response."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Management of Invasive Species in Marine & Coastal Environments Module 6 The International Response

2 2 Module 6 Objectives To describe the international regulatory regime for invasive species, particularly those in marine and coastal environments To describe the international regulatory regime for invasive species, particularly those in marine and coastal environments To provide an overview of international initiatives to promote information sharing and provide support for invasive species management To provide an overview of international initiatives to promote information sharing and provide support for invasive species management

3 3 Invasive Alien Species: An International Problem Invasive alien species are by definition a transboundary problem, and can therefore only be effectively addressed through international co- operation.

4 4 The International Regulatory Framework & IAS Issues Long-established agreements Long-established agreements Biodiversity related treaties Biodiversity related treaties Technical guidelines Technical guidelines Three types:

5 5 The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Article 8(h) of the Convention requires Parties: As far as possible and as appropriate, (to) prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species.

6 6 CBD Marine and Coastal Management Provisions Integrated marine and coastal area management Integrated marine and coastal area management Marine and coastal protected areas Marine and coastal protected areas Sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources Sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources Mariculture Mariculture Alien species Alien species Five thematic issues:

7 7 Jakarta Mandate Operational objective 5.1: To achieve better understanding of the pathways and the causes of the introduction of alien species and the impact of such introductions on biological diversity. Operational objective 5.1: To achieve better understanding of the pathways and the causes of the introduction of alien species and the impact of such introductions on biological diversity. Operational objective 5.2: To put in place mechanisms to control all pathways, including shipping, trade and mariculture, for potential alien invasive species in the marine and coastal environment. Operational objective 5.2: To put in place mechanisms to control all pathways, including shipping, trade and mariculture, for potential alien invasive species in the marine and coastal environment. Operational objective 5.3: To maintain an incident list on introductions of alien species. Operational objective 5.3: To maintain an incident list on introductions of alien species. Programme of work:

8 8 Ramsar Convention Address the problems posed by invasive species in wetland ecosystems in a decisive and holistic manner Address the problems posed by invasive species in wetland ecosystems in a decisive and holistic manner Undertake risk assessments of alien species which may pose a threat to the ecological character of wetlands Undertake risk assessments of alien species which may pose a threat to the ecological character of wetlands Identify the presence of IAS in Ramsar sites Identify the presence of IAS in Ramsar sites Cooperate fully in the prevention, eradication and control of invasive species Cooperate fully in the prevention, eradication and control of invasive species Examine carefully the potential environmental impacts due to invasive species Examine carefully the potential environmental impacts due to invasive species Ensure that prevention, eradication and control of such species are fully incorporated in national legislation and national wetland and biodiversity policies Ensure that prevention, eradication and control of such species are fully incorporated in national legislation and national wetland and biodiversity policies Parties of Convention urged to:

9 9 The United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) comprehensive regime of law and order in the world's oceans and seas comprehensive regime of law and order in the world's oceans and seas rules governing all uses of the oceans and their resources rules governing all uses of the oceans and their resources enshrines the notion that all problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be addressed as a whole enshrines the notion that all problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be addressed as a whole Provides that: States shall take all measures necessary to prevent, reduce and control … the intentional or accidental introduction of species, alien or new, to a particular part of the marine environment, which may cause significant and harmful changes thereto

10 10 The IMO Ballast Water Convention Flag State requirements Flag State requirements Port State requirements Port State requirements Ballast water exchange as interim measure Ballast water exchange as interim measure Focus on treatment of ballast water Focus on treatment of ballast water –Standards set Multiple guidelines for implementation Multiple guidelines for implementation International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments

11 11 Technical Guidance for Fisheries and Aquaculture Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Code of Conduct Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Code of Conduct -Responsible fisheries -Aquaculture and mariculture International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) Code of Practice International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) Code of Practice -Includes aquarium-related transfers -Addresses GMOs -Includes annexes dealing with applications, risk assessment, quarantine, monitoring

12 12 Gaps in Existing Network of Instruments No internationally agreed prevention measures No internationally agreed prevention measures CBD Decision VI/23 §7 called on the IMO to develop mechanisms to minimise this as a matter of urgency CBD Decision VI/23 §7 called on the IMO to develop mechanisms to minimise this as a matter of urgency IMO Antifouling Convention could lead to increase in biofouling related invasions IMO Antifouling Convention could lead to increase in biofouling related invasions Biggest gap is Biofouling:

13 13 Regional Considerations UNEP Regional Seas Programmes UNEP Regional Seas Programmes –13 established regions Regional economic bodies Regional economic bodies –APEC / MERCOSUR Other regional agreements Other regional agreements –CCAMLR Regional strategies and Strategic Action Plans developing Regional strategies and Strategic Action Plans developing –SPREP –MAP

14 14 Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) building capacity at national, regional and international levels; building capacity at national, regional and international levels; sharing of relevant information, especially on best management practice; sharing of relevant information, especially on best management practice; provision of technical support to developing countries; provision of technical support to developing countries; the development of practical, science-based and up-to-date tools to guide decision-making and management; the development of practical, science-based and up-to-date tools to guide decision-making and management; promoting an integrated, holistic approach to IAS management, with an emphasis on prevention; promoting an integrated, holistic approach to IAS management, with an emphasis on prevention; promoting closer collaboration across sectors at national, regional and global levels; promoting closer collaboration across sectors at national, regional and global levels; building awareness of the serious economic, health and environmental threats posed by invasive species. building awareness of the serious economic, health and environmental threats posed by invasive species. GISPs mission is to conserve biodiversity and sustain human livelihoods by minimising the spread and impact of invasive alien species

15 15 Sharing Information The countries within a region may share the same threatened biodiversity; The countries within a region may share the same threatened biodiversity; The countries may face similar problems so sharing new information or techniques can lead to a common solution; The countries may face similar problems so sharing new information or techniques can lead to a common solution; Control or eradication efforts in one country will be useless unless the neighbouring country is also involved; Control or eradication efforts in one country will be useless unless the neighbouring country is also involved; Avoiding duplication of effort in scientific studies, and allowing for information on marine IAS to be expanded upon; Avoiding duplication of effort in scientific studies, and allowing for information on marine IAS to be expanded upon; Aiding in identifying high-risk species and pathways within specific regions. Aiding in identifying high-risk species and pathways within specific regions. Benefits include:

16 16 Information Support Systems A few helpful examples: The listserver Aliens-L The listserver Aliens-L The Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN) The Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN) The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Listserver The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Listserver

17 17 The GloBallast Programme GEF / UNDP / IMO / 6 Pilot Countries - US$10.2M Technical cooperation / institutional strengthening / capacity building Pilot Phase: 1 March 2000 – 31 Dec 04

18 18 Phase II currently developing GloBallast Partnerships

19 19 Quick Exercise There are a number of international conventions and laws which govern Invasive Alien species. A ship has released ballast water within 5km of the harbour. An outbreak of disease has taken place costing human lives. What is the obligation of the ship owners, the national governments to the people. What is the obligation of the ship owners, the national governments to the people. Are there existing Laws in the country governing this introduction?if not, which international laws can be applied? Are there existing Laws in the country governing this introduction?if not, which international laws can be applied? Which stakeholders are authorised to carry out these laws? Which stakeholders are authorised to carry out these laws? Which stakeholders do you think should be well versed and aware of these laws – national or international? Which stakeholders do you think should be well versed and aware of these laws – national or international? How will these be enforced? How will these be enforced?


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