Presentation on theme: "TRANS-BOUNDARY ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS HARI SRINIVAS ROOM: I-312 / 079-565-7406 Global Environmental Policy."— Presentation transcript:
TRANS-BOUNDARY ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS HARI SRINIVAS ROOM: I-312 / Global Environmental Policy
Defining TEP Trans boundary Environmental Problems across, beyond national borders TEPs broadly refer to cases in which pollution created in one country “moves” across national boundaries. Such TEPs have negative implications for living standards in one or more countries in the region or the world in general.
What are TEPs? Some environmental problems span a country’s borders and are felt regionally and globally, e.g. ozone layer depletion, loss of biodiversity, and climate change. Population growth, industrialization and globalization are adding these global or trans- boundary environmental problems and their impacts on countries
What are TEPs? Examples of transboundary environmental challenges: Air and water pollution Shared natural resources (river systems, forests coasts etc.) Large ecosystems Toxic Waste management Movement of refugees Spread of disease/pests
Transboundary Environments Major migratory bird routes of the world Migratory birds and other migratory animals are a significant component of transboundary environmental resources The map illustrates global migratory bird routes and shows that Africa has the highest concentration of such routes
A global map of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Image shows the locations of high levels of nitrogen dioxide worldwide High concentrations of NO2 tend to be associated with large urban or industrial Areas Lower, but widespread, concentrations of the gas—produced by biomass
Transboundary ecosystems Kenya Uganda Tanzania Wildebeest crossing shared rivers and ecosystems of the three countries Three shared national parks between Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania
Nile Basin Initiative The Nile river and its tributaries run through a total of 10 countries (Burundi, Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda) before it flows into the Mediterranean sea
Nile Basin Initiative The “Nile Basin Initiative” is a transboundary programme that covers the entire river system The Initiative provides an institutional mechanism, a shared vision, and a set of agreed policy guidelines to provide a basin-wide framework for cooperative action. Some of the projects carried out: Institutional Strengthening Community-Level Land, Forests, and Water Conservation: Wetlands and Biodiversity Water Quality Monitoring Environment Education and Awareness
Forest Fires/Haze in South East Asia
Regional Haze Action Plan From July to October 1997, ASEAN countries in particular Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, were badly affected by smoke haze caused by land and forest fires ASEAN Environment Ministers have agreed on a “Regional Haze Action Plan”, which sets out co- operative measures needed amongst ASEAN member countries to address the problem of smoke haze in the region arising from land and forest fires.
Regional Haze Action Plan The primary objectives of the Plan are : to prevent land and forest fires through better management policies and enforcement; to establish operational mechanisms to monitor land and forest fires to strengthen regional land and forest fire-fighting capability and other mitigating measures
Monitoring Impacts of TEPs A key tool for TEPs is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) – used at the regional level It covers issues of (a) notification, (b) prior consultation and (c) agreement The information that an Transboundary EIA generates is used for conflict resolution and sustainable development Examples: EU Law United States, Canada, and Mexico ASEAN members
Understanding TEPs There are two key issues to be considered in understanding TEP: The duty to cooperate in international law - sovereignty vs. trans-boundary environmental problems Beyond the duty to cooperate – international environmental law obligations 1 2
TEPs and MEAs Transboundary environmental problems can be solved only by multilateral environmental agreements Most UN Agencies work on transboundary issues using MEAs Transboundary Environmental Issues Multilateral Environmental Agreements PROBLEMSOLUTION
UN and Environmental Policy United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development (IACSD) Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) UNDP, FAO, WMO, IMO, UNU etc.
What are MEAs? International legal instruments that: have a goal of environmental protection are concluded between a large number of states or international organizations as parties are concluded in written form are governed by international law can be embodied in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments (framework agreements)
Next class … We will explore the topic of Multilateral Environmental Agreements in more detail Class website: