2Merit Badge Requirements 1. Explain what citizenship in the world means to you and what you think it takes to be a good world citizen.2. Explain how one becomes a citizen in the United States, and explain the rights, duties, and obligations of U.S. citizenship. Discuss the similarities and differences between the rights, duties, and obligations of U.S. citizens and the citizens of two other countries.3. Do the following:a. Pick a current world event. In relation to this current event, discuss with your counselor how a country's national interest and its relationship with other countries might affect areas such as its security, its economy, its values, and the health of its citizens.b. Select a foreign country and discuss with your counselor how its geography, natural resources, and climate influence on its economy and its global partnerships with other countries.
34. Do TWO of the following: a. Explain international law and how it differs from national law. Explain the role of international law and how international law can be used as a tool for conflict resolution.b. Using resources such as major daily newspapers, the Internet (with your parent's permission), and news magazines, observe a current issue that involves international trade, foreign exchange, balance of payments, tariffs, and free trade. Explain what you have learned. Include in your discussion an explanation of why countries must cooperate in order for world trade and global competition to thrive.c. Select TWO of the following organizations and describe their role in the world.1. The United Nations2. The World Court3. World Organization of the Scout Movement4. The World Health Organization5. Amnesty International6. The International Committee of the Red Cross7. CARE
45. Do the following:a. Discuss the differences between constitutional and non constitutional governments.b. Name at least five different types of governments currently in power in the world.c. Show on a world map countries that use each of these five different forms of government.6. Do the following:a. Explain how a government is represented abroad and how the United States government is accredited to international organizations.b. Describe the roles of the following in the conduct of foreign relations.1. Ambassador2. Consul3. Bureau of International Information Programs4. Agency for International Development5. United States and Foreign Commercial Servicec. Explain the purpose of a passport and visa for international travel.
57. Do TWO of the following and share with your counselor what you have learned: a. Visit the Web site (With your parent/guardian's permission) of the U.S. State Department. Learn more about an issue you find interesting that is discussed on this Web site.b. Visit the Web site (With your parent/guardian's permission) of an international news organization or foreign government, OR examine a foreign newspaper available at your local library, bookstore, or newsstand. Find a news story about a human right realized in the United States that is not recognized in another country.c. Visit with a student or Scout from another country and discuss the typical values, holidays, ethnic foods, and traditions practiced or enjoyed there.d. Attend a world Scout jamboree.e. Participate in or attend an international event in your area, such as an ethnic festival, concert, or play.
6What is citizenship in the world and what does it mean to you? Citizenship is properly defined as "the set of privileges and freedoms, duties and responsibilities of people living in a governed community."World citizenship affects not only a country's relationship to other countries, but also its citizen's relationship to one another.Being a good world citizen means respecting the rights of other governments ... As world citizens and Americans, we must use our unique civic experience to seek and create democratic answers to global questions.
7United States Citizenship Citizenship by blood – You are a citizen by being born to parents who are citizens.Citizenship by soil – You become a citizen because you were born in this country.Citizenship by Naturalization - persons may acquire the citizenship of a country.You can become a US citizen if you are 18 years old or older. You must legally come into the United States for permanent residence and have a Permanent Resident Card. You must live in the United States for five years before you can apply for citizenship. In addition, you must:Live within a state or district for at least three monthsDon’t commit any crimesBelieve in the ideals of the United States ConstitutionKnow United States government and historyRead, write, speak and understand basic English
8RIGHTS, DUTIES, and OBLIGATIONS FREEDOM OF RELIGIONFREEDOM OF SPEECHFREEDOM OF THE PRESSTHE RIGHT TO ASSEMBLETHE RIGHT TO PETITIONTHE RIGHT TO BEAR ARMSTHE RIGHT TO A TRIALOBEY LAWSPAY TAXESJURY DUTYSERVE AS A WITNESSREGISTER FOR THE SELECTIVE SERVICEVOTINGHELP SOMEONE WHEN IN NEEDGO TO WAR WHEN CALLED UPON
9Pledge of AllegianceI pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
10Citizenship in Other Countries Citizenship by blood – You are a citizen by being born to parents who are citizens.Citizenship by soil – You become a citizen because you were born in this country.Citizenship by subjectship – You owe allegiance to both a king or ruler and a nation.
11What is the Concept of National Interest The national interest of a country is multi faceted. Primary is the country's survival and security. Also important is the pursuit of wealth and economic growth and power. Many countries, especially in modern times, regard the preservation of the nation's culture as of great importance.To maintain domestic security, we must have law and order within our borders.To maintain security and protection from other countries
12Other National Interest Economic interests are based on the health of its economy, which varies according to the nations resources and how they are produced, distributed and consumed. A nations economic interests are affected by the events and conditions in other nations or regions.National values are based on a country’s traditional beliefs, culture, religion and historical experiences.
13Natural ResourcesInexhaustible - These resources are unlimited in nature, and they are not likely to be exhausted by human activities. Example are solar radiation, air, water, precipitation (rainfall, snow fall, etc.,) and atomic power.Renewable - A natural resource qualifies as a renewable resource if it is replenished by natural processes at a rate comparable or faster than its rate of consumption by humans or other users. Natural resources that qualify as renewable resources include oxygen, fresh water, timber, and biomass.Nonrenewable - A non-renewable resource is a natural resource that cannot be re-made, re-grown or regenerated on a scale comparative to its consumption. It exists in a fixed amount that is being consumed or used up faster than it can be made by nature. Fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum and natural gas) and nuclear power are non-renewable resources, as they do not naturally re-form at a rate that makes the way we use them sustainable and consumer materials to produce electricity.
15Compared to the U.S. Dollar Foreign Exchange RateArgentine PesoAustralian DollarBrazilian RealBritish PoundCanadian DollarChinese YuanEuroHong Kong DollarIndian RupeeJapanese YenKorean Won ,Mexican PesoRussian RoubleSwedish KronaSwiss FrancCompared to the U.S. Dollar1.00 USD = MXN Pesos1.00 USD = JPY Yen1.00 USD = EUR1.00 USD = CAD Dollar
16Today, the euro is the world's most powerful currency, used by more than 320 million Europeans in twenty countries. The countries currently using the euro are:Andorra Austria Belgium Cyprus Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Malta Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Portugal San Marino Slovenia Spain Vatican City
18“Current World Event”(CNN) -- UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown has branded the cholera crisis in Zimbabwe "an international emergency" and called on the world community to confront President Robert Mugabe, leader of the central African nation.A shortage of clean drinking water has unleashed a cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe."This is now an international rather than a national emergency," Brown said in a statement Saturday. "International because disease crosses borders. International because the systems of government in Zimbabwe are now broken. There is no state capable or willing of protecting its people."Earlier this week the government of Zimbabwe, which already suffers from severe economic problems and political instability, declared a national emergency following the outbreak, which has so far killed more than 600 people.Cholera, a water-borne disease, is on the increase in nine of Zimbabwe's 10 provinces, the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) warned. It blamed "poor water and sanitation supply, a collapsed health system and limited government capacity to respond to the emergency."Many of those afflicted with the disease have fled to neighboring countries to seek medical help -- which risks spreading the outbreak still further.Brown called on the international community to tell Mugabe "enough is enough," and suggested that the United Nations Security Council meet to discuss the issue.He added that the most pressing issue was to ensure that testing and rehydration equipment and packs reach the right people, as well as for aid agencies to set up a organizational structure in the state capital Harare to confront the disease."The people of Zimbabwe voted for a better future. It is our duty to support that aspiration," Brown added. Brown's comments came one day after U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said that the outbreak is the latest sign that Mugabe's rule over the country must end."It's well past time for Robert Mugabe to leave. I think that's now obvious," Rice said during a visit to Denmark.Washington has long called for Mugabe to leave office, with President George W. Bush calling Zimbabwe's runoff presidential election in June a "sham" and instructing Rice and other U.S. officials to develop additional sanctions against Mugabe's "illegitimate government.“ (December 8, 2008)
19Cuba’s geography, natural resources, and climate influence on its economy and its global partnerships with other countriesThe main island consists mostly of flat to rolling plains.The local climate is tropical, though moderated by trade winds.The most important Cuban mineral economic resource is nickel.Another leading mineral resource is cobalt, a byproduct of nickel mining operations.Sugarcane plantations are located throughout the island.Fishing and diving are great resources in the Atlantic Ocean.Cuba has many faiths representing the widely varying culture.Catholicism was brought to the island by the Spanish, and is the most dominant faith.Protestantism, introduced from the United States in the 18th century, has seen a steady increase in popularity.The Episcopal Church of Cuba claims 10,000 adherents.Cuban culture is much influenced by the fact that it is a melting pot of cultures, primarily those of Spain and Africa.Baseball is by far the most popular sport in Cuba.The Cuban Government adheres to socialist principles.Most means of production are owned and run by the government and most of the labor force is employed by the state.Under Fidel Castro, and partially because of invasions, assassination attempts and terrorist attacks, Cuba became a highly militarized society.Cuba's once-ambitious foreign policy has been scaled back and redirected as a result of economic hardship after the collapse of the Soviet bloc. Without its primary trading partner Cuba was comparatively isolated in the 1990s, but has since entered bilateral co-operation with several South American countries, most notably Venezuela and Bolivia. Although relations with the neighboring United States have not improved significantly since the 1980s, Cuba has developed a growing relationship with the People's Republic of China and retains varying diplomatic ties with the European Union.
21International LawRules and principles which govern the relations and dealings of nations with each other.National LawLaw in which a country deals with problems within its borders.Conflict ResolutionInternational Law identifies how a country will deal with nuclear threats, destruction of the environment, terrorism, trade imbalances, famine and disease control. Countries will not jeopardize their relationship with the United States if they know how we will deal with a particular conflict.
22Angry Haitians take to streets to protest food prices April 9, 2008 PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti (AP) -- Protesters angered by high food prices flooded the streets of Haiti's capital Monday, forcing businesses and schools to close as unrest spread from the countryside.Witnesses said at least one person was killed by hotel security guards during a protest in the southern city of Les Cayes, where at least four people died last week in food riots and clashes with U.N. peacekeepers. Police said they were investigating.Thousands of people marched past the National Palace in Port-au-Prince. "We're hungry," some called out. Others carried posters reading "Down with the expensive life!"Some protesters threw chairs against storefronts and shouted for the ouster of President Rene Preval and U.N. troops, blaming them for the high price of rice. Some also roughed up journalists, throwing rocks at cars and pushing photographers to the ground.A university student was seen bleeding on the ground with a bullet wound in his stomach.A U.N. spokeswoman appealed for calm as peacekeepers defended government buildings."We call on the population to reject the trap of violence. Violence will just make the cost of living worse," Sophie Boutaud de la Combe said.Haitians are particularly affected by food prices that are rising worldwide. Eighty percent of the population lives on less than $2 a day. The cost of staples such as rice, beans, fruit and condensed milk has gone up 50 percent in the past year, while the cost of pasta has doubled.Many protesters called for the return of exiled President Jean-Bertrand Aristide -- who was ousted in a 2004 rebellion -- including thousands who packed an amphitheater in the oceanside Cite Soleil slum for a rally led by the Rev. Gerard Jean-Juste."Some can't take the hunger anymore," Jean-Juste said. "As a priest, I encourage all government officials to do their best to find ways to solve the near-famine situation."The U.N. World Food Program made an urgent appeal for donations Monday to support its operations in, the poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere. U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon warned last week that the food crisis could threaten Haiti's fragile security.
23Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon The United NationsSecretary-General Ban Ki-moonThe United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. The UN was founded in 1945 to replace the League of Nations. It’s primary mission is to stop wars between nations and to provide a platform for dialogue.There are now 192 member states, including almost every recognized independent state. The United Nations is headquartered in a golden rectangled building in New York City.
24The International Committee of the Red Cross The ICRC is an independent, neutral organization ensuring humanitarian protection and assistance for victims of war and armed violence.There is a permanent mandate under international law to take impartial action for prisoners, the wounded and sick, and civilians affected by conflict.With its HQ in Geneva, Switzerland, the ICRC is based in around 80 countries and has a total of more than 12,000 staff.
25World Movements World Organization of the Scout Movement International Court of JusticeAmnesty InternationalWorld Health OrganizationCARE
26Comparative Political Systems Autocracy – Unlimited power to govern is in the hands of one ruler; a monarch, dictator, or military or religious leader.Oligarchy – Unlimited power to govern is in the hands of a few persons or a minority; a single political party, junta, or self appointed elite.Democracy – Unlimited power to govern is in the hands of the majority of a country’s citizens.Republic – Limited power to govern is in the hands of elected representatives.Theocracy – A government ruled by one or more religious leaders who believe they have divine authority.
27Relationship Between Legislative and Executive Branches Distribution of PowerRelationship Between Legislative and Executive BranchesIn a Unitary Government , often called a central government, all the powers of the government are held by a single central source, such as a dictator, single political party or ruling group.A Federal Government is based on the division of powers between a national government and several local governments.A Presidential Government is based on the separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches.In a Parliamentary Government, the executive chief and cabinet (the executive branch) are themselves members of the legislative branch (parliament).
28Constitutional and Non Constitutional Governments Constitutional governments have a written document stating their laws, rights and responsibilities. Just because a government has a constitution doesn't mean it is a constitutional government. It must also be limited in power, follow a higher law, and have constitutional stability.Non constitutional governments are dictatorships and absolute monarchies. These are hard on the citizens because they don't have many rights. Totalitarian and authoritarian are the two types of non constitutional governments. In an authoritarian government, the power to make decisions are in the hands of one person or a small group. Totalitarian government is another form of authoritarian rule in which the government controls every aspect of society.Barack Obama,United StatesKim Jong Il,North KoreaRaúl Castro,CubaStephen Harper ,Canada
29Forms of Government Country Distribution of Power Relationship Between Legislative and Executive BranchesLevel of Citizen ParticipationForm of GovernmentUnitaryFederalParliamentPresidentialDemocracyDictatorshipFranceXRepublicIndiaFederal RepublicJapanConstitutional MonarchyMyanmar(Burma)JuntaPeople’s Republic of ChinaOne Party RepublicSaudi ArabiaAbsolute MonarchyUnited StatesVatican CityTheocracy
30Different Types of Governments Currently in Power in the World United States - Federal Republic, Representative DemocracyCanada - Federal Parliamentary, Democracy and Constitutional MonarchySpain - Parliamentary MonarchyPoland – Presidential, RepublicLibya - People's CongressNorth Korea – Communist, Single-Party StateBrazil - Democratic Federal Republic
31Find the United States, Canada, Brazil, Poland, Libya and North Korea on the Map
32The World Order of Nations A First World nation, also called an advanced industrial country, is a modern country with top rate industrial and technological capabilities. It plays a major role in international politics or finance. Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom are some of the first world nations.A Second World nation, also called a major developing country, is an industrial country that is not as advanced or as prosperous as a first world nation. Examples of second world nations are; former Soviet bloc, China, Mexico, and Algeria.A Third World nation, also called a less developed country, is a poor country where high birth rates, poor health, and lack of education contribute to a low standard of living. These countries depend on foreign aid from first world nations. Third world nations include; Nicaragua, Kenya, Ethiopia, India, and Indonesia.A Fourth World nation is on the bottom of the economic hierarchy. People live in extreme poverty. The agricultural economy is based on subsistence farming, which means that the crops and dairy products provide the minimum amount of food necessary to support the farm family, with no surplus left to trade. The fourth world nations are Bangladesh, Afghanistan, and Mozambique.
33How are countries represented and how is the United States government accredited to international organizations?A government is represented abroad by an ambassador or a consul. The United States government is accredited, provided with official credentials, to international organizations through institutions such as the Bureau of Information Programs, Agency for International Development, and the United States and Foreign Commercial Service.
34Ambassador: is a good diplomatic official of the highest rank appointed and accredited as representative in residence by one government or sovereign to another, usually for a specific length of time. They are a diplomatic official heading his or her country's permanent mission to certain international organizations; such as the United Nations; and are an authorized representative of a nation to deliver their nation's messages and protect the national interest of the nation they represent through diplomatic means.Consul: is an official appointed by a government to reside in a Foreign country to represent the commercial interests of citizens of the appointing country as well as providing assistance to Americans traveling abroad.United States Information Agency: is an independent foreign affairs agency supporting U.S. foreign policy and national interests abroad, USIA conducts international educational and cultural exchanges, broadcasting, and information programs.Agency for International Development: are represented in a multitude of nations. These agencies promote goodwill by contributing to resolve international and national crises by providing aid to these nations. In 2005, the efforts are continued and prominent in efforts to provide relief for the tsunami victims in the Indonesian areas.United States and Foreign Commercial Service: is an organization built to assist nations in strengthening economic ties. This service provides any legal commercial business to find other legal commercial businesses to trade, manufacture, or grow through their relationship together.
35Purpose of a Passport and Visa for International Travel The purpose of a passport is to allow citizens of their identified country to receive foreign passage (denied in some cases). The documentation allows both the nation granting passage and the nation of the citizen to be informed of their international activity. This could protect and benefit nations by preventing criminals from entering or exiting their control. The passport also grants them access to embassies of their nation to guarantee them the rights they are entitled to while in foreign lands. A visa is needed if a citizens wishes to live or work in a different nation. There are many types of visas and they differ from nation to nation but a visa is usually the document that grants an individual the ability to work or live in a selected country. The visa is given by the nation that the individual is requesting to work or live in, and the nation may have some terms of agreement most likely for taxation purposes.