Presentation on theme: "Impacts of the Activities on Women During The Last Ten Years in Turkey Prof.Dr.Ayşe Akın Başkent University Research and Implementation Center on Woman-Child."— Presentation transcript:
Impacts of the Activities on Women During The Last Ten Years in Turkey Prof.Dr.Ayşe Akın Başkent University Research and Implementation Center on Woman-Child Health and Family Planning
Presentation plan: Activities on women during last ten years in Turkey and current situation: Education Labor force participation Employement and unemployement Health Violence against women Participation in decision making mechanisms Conclusion
EDUCATION Currently 35% of the population is under the age of 20 in Turkey, so Turkey has a young population and most of them attend schools Literacy rate in Turkey used to be 20% in 1930s which increased steadily, however the gap between male and female remained. Indicators show that school attendance increased in both sexes by years, however female education could not reached at a desired level, they always remained behind.
Education continued… According to the UN Report of “2007-2008, for the “human development index"; Turkey is ranked as 84 th among 177 countries. Therefore Turkey is considered as “mid level developed country”. In Turkey there are 14.817.654 students in formal education (2007/08), 47 % of them are female students. Primary school attendance is the highest and higher education attendance is the lowest in females in Turkey
Literacy rates in Turkey by years and sexes (1935-2000) Kaynak: DİE Genel Nüfus Sayım Sonuçları, TÜİK, Türkiye İstatistik Yıllığı, 2006.
Iliteracy in Turkey There are more than 7 million illiterate people in Turkey where most of them are women Illiteracy is increased in the both sexes from younger age to older,from urban to rural and from western part to the east. According to the last census (2000) 19.4 % of the population is illiterate and 75.5% of them are female.
Iliteracy in Turkey……. Literacy rate has been increased continuously by years. Adult literacy rate was 85.3% in 1997 which increased to 88.1% in 2006. For women: 76.9% increased to 80.4%. For men: It increased to 96% in 2006. Last 10 years literacy and education levels of the female population has been increased significantly in Turkey, but still 100% literacy target has not been reached yet. Currently 1 out of 6 women is illiterate and 1 out of 6 women has not graduated from any type of schools.
Adult Literacy rates by years and sexes (1997-2006) Kaynak: TÜİK Nüfus ve Kalkınma Göstergeleri verileri.
Preschool Education There are 2.5 million children between the age of 4 – 6 years. 25 % of them are attending to the preschool education, 47.8% of them are girls. Although the ratio of the preschool education attendance doubled during last years still it is far behind the level of the EU countries where this attendance is 80%.
Primary Education Since 1997 primary education has been increased to 8 years and it is compulsory and free of charge at the government schools Primary education attendance has been increased significantly since 1997 Net school enrolment rate was 84.7 % in 1997 which was increased to 97,37 % in 2007 For female: It is increased from 78,97% to 96,14% For male: It is increased from 90,25 to 98,53
Secondary Education Secondary education is 4 years in Turkey and it is not compulsory In 2007/08 school years there are 3.245.322 students at the secondary education where 44.8 % are female. For female: net enrolment ratio was 34.16 % in 1997 which is increased to 55.81 % in 2007 For male: net enrolment ratio was 41.39 % in 1997 which is increased to 61.17 % in 2007 That ratio is over 90 % in EU Countries.
Higher Education For female who completed primary and secondary education entering the higher education is more easy Currently there are 6.5 million people at university age group, 2.45 million of them are attending the university education, which is below EU average. Demand for higher education is significantly increased during last years Net University enrolment ratio is increased from 10.25 % to 20.14% between 1997 to 2007 in general
Higher Education For female: Net enrolment ratio of higher education was 9.17% in 1997 which was increased by 103% and reached to 18.66%. Selection of the subjects in higher education is very much influenced by gender factors Labor force participation is increased by level of education in women
Mass Education In addition of the activities of the MoE on mass education many civil societies and NGOs voluntarily organize courses for women and municipalities are also run mass education programs for women free of charge
Mass education continue…. Increased importance is given to the female education in Turkey however there are so many barriers which prevent to use equal opportunities like many other developing countries Summary of those factors : Gender role which is exist in traditional societies. Traditional patriarchal type of families, tend to keep the girls at home not sending to schools for education. Early age of marriage If one of the children is given opportunity for education male child is given priority by the families
Policies followed and programs carried out : Turkey signed all the decisions made at the IV th World Conference on Women in Beijing without any reservation. One of the 12 critical areas of concern is “education and training of women” In 1996 “National Action Plan” was prepared, which includes the following actions: To ensure that Women should get equal share as men in formal and in non-formal education (ensure equal access to education) Elimination all terminologies of sexism or discriminatory items in education materials To increase the female literacy ratio to 100%
Some examples of the actions which ensure to provide equal opportunities for education for male and female in Turkey: In the 8th and 9th Development plans which cover the years 2001–2013, education was emphasized. Regional boarding schools (YİBO), Provision of transportation for the Primary education program Project on the decreasing the social risk (SRAP) – donation to support for the education of the children Campaigns and programs carried out like; A hundred percent support for education “Girls let’s go to school- Haydi Kızlar Okula”, “Daddy send me to school- Baba Beni Okula Gönder” and “support for the basic education- Mother and daughter at school- ana kız okuldayız, literacy campaigns“
Examples continued……. During the campaigns it was realized that there were 273.447 girls who never attended to schools, with the programs at the provinces 81% of them started to go to school. “Kardelens – contemporary girls of contemporary Turkey - Kardelenler-Çağdaş Türkiye’nin Çağdaş Kızları” This very important project is carried out by an NGO and in this project 12.300 girls received scholarship, 7380 students graduated from secondary education,950 students started university education, 67 students finished University education. As this project was considered very successful it is extended till year 2015. “Mother-Father and Child education project-Anne-Baba-Çocuk Eğitimi Projesi”. Project on “Strengthening vocational education and training system”. In this project effective intersectoral collaboration is being done.
PARTICIPATION IN LABOR FORCE AND EMPLOYEMENT In all ages labor force participation is lower in women compare with men. Infact this participation even decreasing further by years. Education is the most significant influential factor in female labor force participation Labor force participation is increased as the education level of women is increase. There is a hidden female unemployment in Turkey. Patriarchal attitude prevent women from working life in rural and urban parts.
PARTICIPATION İN LABOR FORCE AND EMPLOYEMENT…. Marriage for women often create barrier in their participation in labor force. However that is balanced with education. If a woman is not married her participation in labor force is higher compare with married woman. Female participation in labor force is affected with their domestic responsibilities. Caring children and elderly at home and home based / home axial activities are the major cause of female unemployment. As the duration of the compulsory primary education became longer we are expecting that would also increase female participation in labor force
Kaynak: TÜİK, Türkiye İstatistik Yıllığı, 2006.
EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT Women are far behind the employment of men, especially due to her domestic Unemployment rates in women which were already low in 1990 and 2000, after economic crisis in 2001 increased to 10 % in general, and 17.9 in women and 11.3 in men.
Unemployed Ratio and unemploye - outside of agriculture (%) (15+age) 2000200120022003200420052006 unemployement6,58,410,310,510,3 9,9 Unemployement ratiooutside of agriculture9,312,414,513,814,313,612,6 - Male8,411,313,312,613,112,411,3 - Female13,517,719,818,919,618,817,9 Kaynak: TÜİK, Hanehalkı İşgücü Anketi Sonuçları.
Employment in informal sector is over 50 % in Turkey, however this is more common in agriculture and family work without payments in mainly rural parts of the country. Among the people with social security registration the share of male is 82,8 % where female share is only 17,2 % for the year 2006.
Policies followed and activities carried out : In The Beijing Platform for Action ;One of the 12 critical areas of concern is “women and the economy” Turkey emphasized the issue in her 8th and 9th development plan where the young people and women is given priority as target population. Projects: Many projects have been and still being carried out to increase the female participation in labor force in Turkey by collaborated efforts of the national sectors and international organizations.
Policies followed and activities carried out continued… The project on “Improvement of female participation in labor force” have been carried out by the GD of Status of Woman between the years 1994–2000. Main objectives of the project to find out the possible underlying factors of the reasons of the poor female unemployment and based on the findings to develop, formulate the best policies and solutions in the country to increase the women’s participations in every area of work as well as to offer women various working opportunities Many of the policies which encourage women’s employment were generated from this project and being implemented now.
HEALTH Since 1963 DHS type of surveys has been carried out in Turkey with 5 years intervals therefore we know the health statistics related to RH/Women's and Child health and FP quite accurately. We can also assess the progresses and the shortcomings in health care of Turkey
HEALTH continued……. Progresses in Women and Child Health and FP in Turkey: Maternal mortalities have been markedly decreased in Turkey by years MMR was 208 in 100 thousand LBs in 1974 which was decreased to 28.5 in 2005 according to the Nationwide MM Survey.
Maternal mortality ratios by years in Turkey (in 100 thousands live births)
Antenatal care increased significantly by years and according to the latest DHS-2003 it 81% of all pregnants are receiving ANC which was 63 % in 1993. Proportion of safe deliveries was 76% in 1993 which is increased to 83 % in 2003 Total Fertility Rate (TFR) has been decreased by years very markedly in Turkey. It used to be 4.3 in 1978 then was 3.0 in 1988 then in 1998 was 2.6, in the last DHS it was found as 2.2 per woman. This steady decrease indicate the correct family planning policy and the management of the programs implemented for a long time in Turkey
Pregnants receiving antenatal care is increasing by years in Turkey
Deliveries assisted by health personel is increasing by years in Turkey
YILLARA GÖRE TOPLAM DOĞURGANLIK HIZI Total Fertility Rates in Turkey by Years (1978-2003)
FP methods known by almost all married couples in Turkey. Contraceptive choices have been increased in the country by adding implants, injectables etc in the national programs where IUDs,The pills and condom and surgical sterilizations are provided. Counseling is given more importance in the FP services
Family Planning Practices in Turkey by Years 1978-2003 Kaynak: TNSA, 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003.
Before 1983 induced abortion was permitted only on medical grounds, during that period self-induced abortions caused significant number of maternal deaths in Turkey In 1983 induced abortion up to 10 weeks was legalized on request in Turkey After its legalization there has been almost no deaths due to induced abortion in Turkey. Beside after 1990’s rate of induced abortions is decreasing very markedly Still there is a considerable unmet needs in abortion services in Turkey, in order to meet that demand “medical abortion method” has been tried to be introduced in Turkey
Induced Abortions in Turkey by years 1983 - 2003
Infant Mortality Rates in Turkey by Years İn 1000 thousand live births thousand Marked decrease occured in IMR in Turkey and from 208 in thousand to 29 Under 5 mortality decreased from 61 in thousand to 37.
A National Strategic Plan on RH has been prepare in Turkey which covers the period of 2000-2015. According to the priorities of this strategic plan various programs and projects are being carried out in the country. Since 2003 several EU supported projects have been carried out which aimed to improve the level of MCH in Turkey. Like “safe motherhood, emergency obstetric care,STIs,FP,In service trainings etc.”
Despite to the decrease in maternal mortalities, according to the NMM Survey 3 out of 5 maternal deaths were found to be preventable. This finding indicates the inadequacy in health care and at the same time it indicates that if correct intervention programs are implemented those deaths could be prevented easily. There are marked differences in utilization of RH care services in Turkey according to the regions and characteristics of the settlements being rural or urban The major influential factor which cause those differences is the education level of the women another word is the status of women. According to the further analysis of the nationwide studies; If the women are illiterate they have double numbers of children as they desire. If the women literate they have as many children as they want.
Illeterate women have more number of children than what they wanted to have 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.9 2.5 3.2 2.6 2.8 3.7 Desired number of children Number of children they have
2.5 2.6 2.8 3.0 2.2 2.5 2.2 2.4 2.8 Desired number of children Number of children they have Literate women are having the same number of children what they want
Similar trend is observed in FP practices Another striking example in 3 consecutive DHS it was found that ; 99% of women is having safe deliveries if they have secondary education. On the contrary women with no education only 1 out of 2 is having safe delivery. That means education level is a significant determining factor in utilization of the health care services in Turkey. Based on the current realities in Turkey, In order to improve women’s health; in addition to empowerment of women and improving their status PHC approach should be adopted in the country and fundamental health care programs like safe motherhood should be provided
Utilization of obstetrics services by women according to their education ( DHS – 1998-2003)
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN During last 10 years so many plans and programs have been made to prevent VAW in Turkey, most of them are revolutionary. In this context; Law on the protection of the family was accepted in 1998-# 4320 which introduced a very effective security system to protect individuals victimized by domestic violence. Turkish criminal code # 5237 (TCK) Established a research commission at the parliament in 2005 to investigate and specify the actions to prevent the custom and honor killings and underlying causes of violence against women and children
After the Report of the Parlimentary Research Comission, “prevention of the violence against women” became formal government policy in Turkey. Prime minister issued a statement on the subject on 4 th July 2006 which instructed the sectors about their responsibilities on VAW.
Some of the examples of the activities which are carried out by the GD of SW A follow up committee was established to monitor the VAW activities, A protocol was signed with the security forces to train the policemen for their role in preventing VAW and the related procedures A protocol was signed with the Ministry of Health to train the health care providers for their role in preventing VAW and the related procedures Combating Domestic Violence Against Women -National Action Plan -2007-2010 Project on Combating Domestic Violence Against Women National Survey on VAW (2007)
The activities are carried out by other sectors; Project to establish Shelters in 8 province for the women who are the victim of the domestic violence. (Currently there are 47shelters in Turkey) Violence call line (Alo 183 Danışma Hattı) (SHÇEK ) In 2007 132.617 people benefited from the line. Legal advise is provided by the body of lawyers free of charge As seen from the above stated activities “Combating VAW” is the combined efforts of the governments with the other sectors which is led by the GD of SW and one of the major objectives of the activities to increase the public awareness level about VAW.
WOMEN IN POWER AND DECISION MAKING The main constitution of Turkey gives equal opportunities to every one for all human rights irrespective to race, sex etc…. Turkey gave the legal rights to women to be elected and vote even before many countries in the world. However despite to that fact women have not been adequately / equally represented at the decision levels due to various reasons
Members of the Parliment by Years in Turkey (1935-2007) Election yearTotal numberFemale ##% 1935395184.6 1943435163.7 194645592.0 195048730.6 197745040.9 1983450123.0 198745061.3 2002550244.4 2007550509.1 Kaynak: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/VeriBilgi.do?tb_id=42&ust_id=12;http://www.tuik.gov.tr/VeriBilgi.do?tb_id=42&ust_id=12 2007 seçim sonuçları için www.tbmm.gov.tr; KSGM, Türkiye’de Kadın 2001.www.tbmm.gov.tr
At the general election of 2002 there were only 24 female parliamentarians out of 550 which makes only 4.4% of the total. That was even worse for the cabinet, as there was only ONE minister in the cabinet At the general election of 2007 # of female parliamentarians increased to 50 which makes 9,1 % There is again only ONE minister in the cabinet.
Representation of women at the local authorities is also important as as an initial step for entering the decision making mechanism. However representation of women at that level is also very limited Only 18 out of 3225 ( 0.6%) mayors are women
Women in Local Authorities, 1994, 2004, Turkey TotalFemaleFemale%in total 1999 election Mayor3215180.56 Members of the municipality board 340845411.59 Members of general provincial comission 3122441.41 2004 election Mayor3225180.56 Members of the municipality board 344778342.42 Members of general provincial comission 3208581.81 Kaynak: İç İşleri Bakanlığı Mahalli İdareler Genel Müdürlüğü; KSGM, Türkiye’de Kadının Durumu.
At the Universities in Turkey: Proportion of the female academicians are 39%, 27% of all professors are women 36% of all the engineers are female 29 % of all physicians are female and 33 % of the lawyers are female
Representation of women at the high level of bureaucracy is also not high. There are only 21 female civilian authority - No governor Number of the deputy of the governors is 5 out of 408 total, 16 out of 857 district governors are women, 6 out of 165 district governor candidates are female
Managers/administrators at the high level burochracy levels (Turkey, 2001) Unvanfemale%male% undersecretary0019100 Deputy of undersecretary 34.36695.7 Director1417.56682.5 Deputy director1426.93873.1 General director126.018894.0 Deputy general director 5810.648889.4 Kaynak: KSGM, Türkiye’de Kadın 2001.
Human Development Index and some gender indicators in some cuntries. (2007, 2008) Gender Development Index – GDI (Rank of the Countries), 2007/2008 Gender Empowerment Measure – GEM** (Rank of the Countries), 2007/2008 Proportion of female parlimentarians (%), 2007/2008 Years that women was given rights to vote and be elected Female active participatio n in economic activities (%), 2005 Countries SeçmeSeçilme Norway3137.919131907, 1913 63.3 Island1531.71915, 1920 70.5 Sweden5247.31919, 1921 58.7 Brazil60709.31932 56.7 Turkey79909.11930, 1934 27.7 Canada41024.31917, 1960 1920, 1960 60.5 Ethopia1497221.41955 70.8 Tanzania1384430.41959 85.8 Kaynak: Human Development Report, 2007/2008
CONCLUSSION Gender equality legally is ensured and strengthened by the 10th item of the main constitution as well as other legislations in Turkey. However unless all those legal requirements are implemented in the real life the targeted gender equality cannot be reached. Despite to considerable progresses and improvements in women’s issues, according to the results of the implementations there are still some distances to be covered in women issues in Turkey Last ten years significant number of programs and projects related to women issues have been initiated and implemented in Turkey,although some of their impacts can be seen through the indicators, however to see the real impacts of all those activities some period of time is needed.
Despite all the efforts to increase the coverage of education, still there are some gender inequalities in education therefore Turkey considers to give more importance to the improvements of status of women and their living standards, facilitate their adaptation to societal changes and also support their rights to access information and services. Universal education will be ensured to every individuals with more emphasis on women. Participations of women in labor force is one of the prerequisites of the development, therefore Turkey committed to continue her efforts to remove psycho social barriers in front of women to increase their active participations in labor force and live productive lives. In this context the legislations will be examined by a gender sensitive approach.
Although women were given rights to vote and elected in 1930s in the coming years they were not able to take place and be represented at the decision making levels sufficiently and more actively therefore in the future we will concentrate on intervention programs for removing obstacles in their participations in decision making mechanisms which will be mainly “empowerment of women”
Turkey will continue to carry out research on women issues to find out the real and current problematic areas in gender inequalities and develop intervention programs In the field of “Health”; Continuous evaluation will be carried out to see the impact of gender discriminations on women’s health and develop necessary intervention programs
One of the major strategies followed by Turkey is to ensure the “Gender Mainstreaming” in the country (GEM) Programs will be continued for; “empowerment of women” in every spheres of life. Protection of women’s rights Elimination of all forms of discriminations against women Advocacy activities to increase the public awareness on gender discrimination and its adverse outcomes İntersectoral collaboration on women’s issues The role of the GD SW will continue as a national mechanism to advocate and coordinate all national efforts on women issues.