Presentation on theme: "Gender Inequalities – The Big Picture Statistically speaking, girls get the best grades so they should get the best jobs. BUT women still earn only about."— Presentation transcript:
Gender Inequalities – The Big Picture Statistically speaking, girls get the best grades so they should get the best jobs. BUT women still earn only about 80% of the average mans earnings. WHY? Gender stereotyping Family responsibilities The glass ceiling
Gender stereotyping Women are still seen by society as the primary carers of children. Women tend to work in poorly paid sectors such as the 4 Cs caring: caring, cleaning, catering, and cash registers. Society, in general, puts a lower economic value on the contribution of carers. Women are often stereotyped into certain jobs and out of others. The Fawcett Society is campaigning on the issues of Sexism and the City.
Family Responsibilities Some researchers describe the existence of the one and a half breadwinner family – women in part time work when children are born. Typical women has her first child at 30. Pay gap between men and women in their 30s is 11%, by their 40s it is 23% Apart from pay and status, part time workers normally have less job security, fewer occupational pensions or paid holidays.
The Glass Ceiling or Concrete Ceiling? In 2008 the Equality and Human Rights Commission published a report Sex and Power. It showed there was a huge gulf between men and women in terms of earnings and power. Women make up almost half the workforce, with 14.3 million women compared to 16.9 million men. Iraq and Afghanistan have more female politicians than the UK, at the current rate of progress it will take women 200 years to gain equality of representation with men in The House of Commons
Government responses to Gender Inequality The Equal Pay Act 1970 (amended 2003) – employers must treat men and women equally in terms and conditions of their employment contract. The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 – it is unlawful for an employer to discriminate or fail to prevent discrimination against a worker. According to the SDA there are two types of sex discrimination; direct and indirect.
Discrimination Direct – where a worker has been treated less favourably than another in similar relevant circumstances on grounds of gender. For example to sack a women because she is pregnant. Harassment is a form of direct discrimination which violates a persons dignity. Indirect – happens often when an employer does not realise
Recent Government action on gender inequality The Employment Equality (Sex Discrimination) Regulations 2005 – introduced new definitions of indirect discrimination and harassment The Employment Rights Act 2002 – introduced the right to request flexible working procedures The Equalities Act 2006 – set up the Gender Equality Duty is a legal requirement on all public bodies The Equality Bill 2008 – bringing all forms of discrimination under one piece of legislation (including gender, race, disability)
Is enough being done to tackle inequalities? Sex and Power 2008 report confirmed to many that more Government action is needed as women are still likely to be paid less than men and found in lower status jobs. Campaigners would like to see more flexible working, increased levels of paternity pay and more affordable childcare. BUT some people think that the Government has gone too far because the National Minimum Wage has been very expensive for some businesses. Others suggest that the indirect costs of maternity leave has resulted in employers recruiting more men avoid the costs.
Breaking the Glass Ceiling? While there is a wealth of evidence to show that women, on average, do not achieve equality with men in pay or social status, there are areas where women have made great progress. Law – By 2011 there will be more female than male lawyers. Scotlands top lawyer; the Lord Advocate, for the first time is a woman, Elish Angiolini. Medicine – In 2006, women for the first time outnumbered men as registered doctors. The proportion of female consultants has doubled from 12% in 1983, but they still account for only 1 in 4 of all consultants.