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Chapter 10: How did Singapore Tackle its Challenges in its Early Years of Independence?

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: How did Singapore Tackle its Challenges in its Early Years of Independence?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10: How did Singapore Tackle its Challenges in its Early Years of Independence?

2 REVIEW British set up the British Military Administration Penang and Malacca joined the Malayan Union while Singapore remained as a separate Crown Colony Federation of Malaya was formed. Singapore was left out. Why? 1.The federation and Singapore had different economies 2.Singapore had a large Chinese population which threatened the basic rights of the Malays 3.Singapore was an important naval base to the British The British had no intention to give up control over Singapore but they also knew that the people would not be contented. Hence they decided to allow the people to be involved in the first elections

3 Gradual Progress Towards Self- Government 1948 Election Rendel Commission, Jul Elections SPP won 3 out of 6 seats. The rest were won by independents. Recommended limited self- government. - Housing, Education, Health, Trade and Industry LF won 10 out of 25 seats. Formed coalition government. David Marshall became the first Chief Minister. Faced challenges such as Hock Lee Bus Riots.

4 Gradual Progress Towards Self- Government 1956 – First Merdeka Talks 1957 – 2 nd Merdeka Talks 1959 Elections Led by David Marshall. Requested for internal self government. Failed. Marshall resigned. Why? Lim Yew Hock became 2 nd Chief Minister. Faced challenges such as Students Riots. Led by Lim Yew Hock. Requested for internal self government. Succeeded. Why? First fully elected democratic government. PAP won majority of seats and formed new govt. Lee Kuan Yew became first PM and Yusof Ishak became the first Head of State.

5 Gradual Progress Towards Self- Government 1963 Merger with Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak Formed the Federation of Malaysia. Singapore held its first State Election in Participated by SUMNO. SUMNO failed to garner support. First Federal Election held in KL. Singapore won 1 seat. Concept of Malaysian Malaysia introduced and angered the Malaysian Federal government. Racial Riots occurred in Singapore. Singapore separated from Malaysia and became a sovereign independent nation.

6 Learning Objectives Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of independence Strategies adopted in response to these challenges Effectiveness of these strategies in preparing Singapore for the future

7 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Lack of raw materials Limited land space Loss of Malaysia as a potential hinterland market - Weak industry base - Fall in trade Growing population Need to create jobs for the people Economic Uncertainties

8 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Announcement of the withdrawal of British military forces by the end of 1971 Need to build up its own defence to protect the nation from both internal and external threats Political Uncertainties

9 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Challenges Lack of natural resources such as rubber, palm oil and minerals like tin and gold Lack of diversity in the economy due to dependence on entrepot trade High Unemployment Economic Challenges & Strategies Strategies – Two-pronged Incentives to MNCs from Japan, Western Europe and the USA to set up factories in Spore Transformed Spore into a more organised and efficient country - High standards of public service

10 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Economic Challenges & Strategies Dr Albert Winsemius, a Dutch economist - Export-led industrialisation to develop faster and stay ahead of other countries recommended in response to loss of potential hinterland market and aptitude of its people to work in manufacturing industries government would provide key infrastructure (efficient port, good communication and transport system, sound banking and financial system; p. 203) Positioned as low cost manfacturing export centre

11 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Economic Challenges & Strategies Dr Albert Winsemius, a Dutch economist - Export-led industrialisation Setting up of Economic Development Board (EDB) in Aug 1961 to drive development of new and existing industries (eg. Setting up of Jurong Industrial Estate, JIE) Success: By 1968, almost 300 factories providing jobs for 21,000 people were set up 1968, Jurong Town Corporation (JTC) was formed to take over the management of JIE and other industrial estates in Kallang Basin, Sims Avenue and Redhill)

12 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence By 1985, Spore developed into a modern city-state Had a diversified economy and global trade network Impact on the Present

13 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Challenges in Housing Singapore Improvement Trust (SIT) set up in 1927 failed to solve housing problems Estimated half a million people lived in slums and squatter settlements by 1959 Living conditions were cramped and unhygienic – spread of diseases as well as fire hazards (Bukit Ho Swee fire in May 1961) Social Challenges & Strategies Strategies Housing and Development Board (HDB) set up in 1960 to replace SIT

14 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Social Challenges & Strategies Housing and Development Board Implemented three five-year plans to build flats quickly and economically 1 st 5-yr Plan Built housing estates based on neighbourhood concept comprising 1,000 to 1,500 families (self-contained shops, schools, clinics, community centres, playground) Eg. Tiong Bahru, Queenstown, Toa Payoh, MacPherson)

15 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Social Challenges & Strategies Housing and Development Board Implemented three five-year plans to build flats quickly and economically 2 nd 5-yr Plan Focused on quality of housing programme (designs, open spaces, landscaping, car parks, point blocks)

16 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Social Challenges & Strategies Housing and Development Board Mr Lim Kim San, first HDB chief Implemented three five-year plans to build flats quickly and economically 3rd 5-yr Plan Focused on catering to needs of middle-income households who wanted bigger flats but could not afford private housing (eg. HUDC)

17 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Spore became a home-owning society Fostered social stability Gave citizens a stake in the country and its future Promoted a sense of national pride and identity among Sporeans Impact on the Present

18 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Challenges in Education Means to support Spores economic development Need to get people of different races to interact Colonial rule saw education largely left to the different ethnic and religious organisations Quality of education varied Social Challenges & Strategies Strategies Common medium of instruction Daily flag-raising and pledge taking ceremonies Civics Education and ECA

19 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Social Challenges & Strategies Educational Reforms 1st 5-yr Plan Focused on increasing level of literacy of people Large scale recruitment of teachers and teachers-in- training Introduction of compulsory bilingual policy in 1960 for primary schools and 1966 for secondary schools Students were also equipped with relevant technical skills, in addition to the basic skills of reading and writing

20 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Shaped social relations among different races Equipped workforce with technical skills Students equipped with EL (working language) and mother tongue (roots to culture and race) Impact on the Present

21 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Challenges Strong defence was critical in ensuring peace and stability which would in turn draw foreign investors to Spore Constraints of limited manpower and funds Political Challenges & Strategies Strategies Establishment of Ministry of Interior and Defence

22 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Political Challenges & Strategies Ministry of Interior and Defence (MID) Dr Goh Keng Swee Introduced National Service. Passed NS Amendment Bill on 14 March 1967 Sporean male citizens aged 18 would enroll for NS After NS, they would become reservists or Operationally Ready NSmen Singapore Armed Forces Training Institute (SAFTI) set up in June 1966 to provide military training Measures to overcome opposition put in place

23 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Political Challenges & Strategies Ministry of Interior and Defence (MID) Dr Goh Keng Swee Steps taken to set up Navy and Air Force Bilateral training introduced Five Power Defence Agreement signed with Britain, Australia, NZ and Malaysia – assistance in times of attacks

24 Challenges faced by Singapore in its early years of Independence Ready pool of combat trained male citizens Forged closer bonds among people of different races and religious background Impact on the Present


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