Presentation on theme: "CHALLENGES FACED IN MULTI-ETHNIC SINGAPORE"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHALLENGES FACED IN MULTI-ETHNIC SINGAPORE BONDING SINGAPORECHALLENGES FACED IN MULTI-ETHNIC SINGAPORE
2 Focus of Chapter Focus 1: What are the Challenges of a multi-ethnic society?Focus 2:Can ethnic diversity be managed?Focus 3:Why is it important to manage ethnic diversity?
3 Today’s Lesson Objectives By the end of the lesson you will be able to:Identify different methods/ policies implemented by the government to manage ethnic diversityExplain different methods/ policies implemented by the government to manage ethnic diversity
4 HOW DOES SINGAPORE MANAGE ETHNIC DIVERSITY? Building a National IdentityDeveloping Common SpaceSafeguarding the interests of minority groupsHow does Singapore Manage Ethnic Diversity?
5 BUILDING A NATIONAL IDENTITY MULTI-RACIALISMMulti-racialism refers to the policy whereby everyone, regardless of their racial or religious background, is given equal opportunitiesThe constitution of Singapore specially forbids anyone from bring discriminated against because of his/her race or religionThis policy helps to create a national identity as everyone is seen as a valued citizen of the countryQuestion 1:Watch the following videoWrite down what does multiracialism mean to you.
6 BUILDING A NATIONAL IDENTITY COMMON PRACTICESCommon practices are actions that all Singaporeans carry out together. These include singing the national anthem and taking the national pledgeCommon practices help to build up national identity and develop loyalty and pride towards the nation. Common practices help Singaporeans see themselves as one people
7 BUILDING A NATIONAL IDENTITY BILINGUALISMBilingualism is the policy of learning two languages – English and Mother Tongue. This policy was introduced into the Singapore school curriculum in 1966English was to be the common language of communication for Singaporeans of different ethnic groups. Mother tongue was to be used to preserve the cultural traditions of the different ethnic groups
8 BUILDING A NATIONAL IDENTITY BILINGUALISM (CONT’D)The policy of bilingualism has contributed to managing ethnic diversity. Since English was not the native tongue of any group in Singapore, it did not give an advantage to any one group over the othersSingaporeans’ proficiency in the English language also played key role in the economic development of Singapore as English is the international language of commerceQuestion 2:Watch the following videoIs being bilingual good? Why? How can we encourage Singaporeans to be effectively bilingual?
9 SAFEGUARDING THE INTERESTS OF MINORITY GROUPS MINORITY REPRESENTATIONIn multi-ethnic societies, it is important that the minority groups have a voice in the governance of the country. This voice helps to safeguard the interests of the minority groups.Singapore has the Presidential Council of Minority Rights (PCMR) and Group Representation Constituency (GRC) to safeguard the interests of the minority groups.
10 SAFEGUARDING THE INTERESTS OF MINORITY GROUPS MINORITY REPRESENTATION (CONT’D)The Presidential Council of Minority Rights (PMCR)Any law passed by the Parliament in Singapore must have the assent of the PCMR. The PCMR comprises of leaders from all communities and their job is to ensure that no law in Singapore discriminates against the minority races.If the PCMR does not give its assent, the law must be debated again in Parliament and resubmitted with the discriminating elements removed
11 SAFEGUARDING THE INTERESTS OF MINORITY GROUPS MINORITY REPRESENTATION (CONT’D)The Group Representation Constituency (GRC)Electoral Constituencies in Singapore are either single-seated or in groups. Political parties intending to stand in the GRCs must include member of the minority race in their group.This is to ensure that minority groups will always be represented in ParliamentQuestion 3:Watch the following videoWhat do you think are the consequences if the minority groups are not given equality in the country?
12 SAFEGUARDING THE INTERESTS OF MINORITY GROUPS SELF HELP GROUPSSelf-help groups (SHG) were formed to allow community members to help other members in their communities.The SHGs in Singapore are:Chinese Development Assistance Council (CDAC),Singapore Indian Development Association (SINDA),Mendaki andEurasian Association.
13 SAFEGUARDING THE INTERESTS OF MINORITY GROUPS SELF HELP GROUPS (CONT’D)The SHGs focus primarily in improving the educational standards of the members of their community by organizing tuition classes and providing financial aid.The SHGs also help when people need training grants to prepare themselves for new jobs.SHGs also provide family counselling and give moral support.
14 SAFEGUARDING THE INTERESTS OF MINORITY GROUPS SELF HELP GROUPS (CONT’D)The SHGs have played a key role in helping members in their community improve their economic and social standingThe different SHGs have also held joint projects that allow the members from different ethnic groups to come together, to interact and to better understand one anotherQuestion 4:Go onto some of the websites of the self-help groups mentioned above and write down some of the programmes that they have in helping their own racial/ religious groups (at least 3)
15 DEVELOPING COMMON SPACE GRASSROOTS ORGANISATIONGrassroots organization organize programmes that appeal to all groups and have helped provide common spaceThe People’s Association (PA) organizes programmes such as home stays. Through this programmes, participants from one ethnic group will stay in the house of another ethnic group to better understand and appreciate their way of life.Programmes like these help to build mutual respect and strong friendships amongst the different ethnic groups
16 DEVELOPING COMMON SPACE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUITIONSSchools are excellent examples of common spacesMost of the schools n Singapore are open to all ethnic groups. This allows students from the different ethnic groups to study together. Daily interaction allows strong bonds to be builtCo-curricular activities in schools, such as uniformed groups and sports, also help to build bonds as students from different ethnic groups have to learn to work in unity
17 DEVELOPING COMMON SPACE PUBLIC HOUSINGThe 1980s saw an unhealthy trend happening in housing estates.As people could buy and sell their HDB flats in the open market, it was observed that people from same ethnic groups were moving into particular housing estates.
18 DEVELOPING COMMON SPACE PUBLIC HOUSING (CONT’D)As this could seriously affect the opportunities to have common space, the government introduced the ‘ethnic integration policy’ in 1989.This policy ensured that there was a certain proportion of all races in the housing estates.
19 DEVELOPING COMMON SPACE PUBLIC HOUSING (CONT’D)Iti s evident that this policy was necessary to create common space so that the different ethnic groups can meet and interact.Having a common space allows frequent communication to take place and builds understanding among people of different social backgrounds.As such, conflict is less likely to occur and peace and harmony could be maintained.
20 DEVELOPING COMMON SPACE THE IRCCs AND HCsIRCCs and HCs were formed to allow greater opportunities for the different communities to interact.
21 DEVELOPING COMMON SPACE THE IRCCs AND HCs (CONT’D)Inter-Racial Confidence Circles (IRCCs)IRCCs carried out activities such as organizing visits to various places of worship to allow for greater appreciation and understanding of the various religious beliefs and practices.Harmony Circles (HCs)HCs were organized at workplaces to allow for inter-racial and inter-religious activities for workers of different ethnic groups working at the same place
22 DEVELOPING COMMON SPACE NATIONAL SERVICENational Service is another area where common space is created. All able-bodied male Singaporeans go through similar military training and this helps to create strong bonds amongst the men from different ethnic groups.Question 5:WatchHow do you think the experience the NS men have in the video will bond them together?
23 CONCLUSION Building a National Identity Developing Common Space Safeguarding the interests of minority groupsDeveloping Common SpaceMulti-racialismCommon PracticesBilingualismMinority RepresentationSelf-Help GroupsGrassroots OrganizationsEducational InstitutionsPublic HousingIRCCs & HCsNational ServiceHow does Singapore Manage Ethnic Diversity?