3Autism Facts 1 in 110 children diagnosed with autism Four times more likely to occur in boys than in girlsASDs can sometimes be detected at 18 months or youngerBy age 2, a diagnosis by an experienced professional can be considered very reliable- Recent studies have estimated that the lifetime cost to care for an individual with an ASD is $3.2 million
4What Causes Autism? Definite causes are unknown Genetic risk factors Children who have a sibling or parent with an ASD are at a higher risk of also having an ASD.Comorbid with other medical conditions: seizure disorder, chromosomal disorders, autoimmune disorders, etc.Once common belief that poor parenting practices (refrigerator mothers) cause ASDs is not true.
5What is Autism? Neurological disorder that involves 3 domains: * Language delay/impairments* Impairments in social skills* Repetitive, restricted, stereotyped behaviorsBegins at birth or within first three years of lifeSpectrum disorder
6What are the Treatments? Individualized: everyone is affected differently2009 National Standards Report (over 700 research studies) to determine the most effective treatments.11 established treatments, most of which include behavioral methodology20+ emerging treatmentsSymptoms are treated, not disorder
8Applied Behavior Analysis Multi-method strategy that consists of:1. Observing behavior2. Identifying target behavior3. Identifying possible causes for behavior4. Selection of behavior treatments5. Implementation of treatments and treatment evaluations- Goal: to decrease undesirable behavior while increasing desirable behavior
9Applied Important to change Socially relevant Age appropriate Prerequisites met
10Not observable or measurable Observable and measurable BehaviorAnything a person does that can be described in observable and measurable termsNot observable or measurableObservable and measurableTantrumDropping to the floor and cryingHappinessSmiling, laughingAggressionHitting, kicking, biting therapist or peer
11Analysis-Observation and measurement of behavior to determine function-Development of behavior change procedure-Analysis of the effects of behavior change procedures
12The ABCs of ABA -Antecedent: events that precede an act -Behavior: anything a person does-Consequence: events that follow the behavior, the results of a behavior
13The ABCs of ABA Antecedent Behavior Consequence See cracker Say "cracker"Get crackerThirstySay "juice"Get juiceSee ironTouch ironGet burnedPeer takes toyHit peerPeer gives toy back
14The Basis of Behavioral Intervention ReinforcementThe Basis of Behavioral Intervention
15Reinforcement -Used to increase desired behaviors -Reinforcer is anything that increases a behavior-Increases the future probability of the behavior
18Rules of Reinforcement Rule Number 1: Catch the student being good!
19Rules of Reinforcement Rule Number 2: Vary your reinforcement
20Rules of Reinforcement Rule Number 3: Reinforcement must be contingent on behavior
21Rules of Reinforcement Rule Number 4: Reinforcement must be delivered immediately after the desired behavior
22Rules of Reinforcement Rule Number 5: The size or amount of reinforcement must be appropriate* The Matching Law
23Rules of Reinforcement Rule Number 6: The reinforcement must be motivating for the student (satiation, deprivation)
24Rules of Reinforcement Rule Number 7: The value of a reinforcer depends on competing reinforcers that are available for other behaviors.
25Negative Reinforcement - Increase in behavior by removing something from the environment
26Punishment - Decreases behavior - Type I: Something is added to the environment to decrease behavior- Type II: Something is taken away from the environment- Temporary fix- Last resort!!
27Extinction -To extinguish or decrease undesirable behaviors -Reinforcement is no longer delivered after the behavior-Extinction burst: The behavior may get worse before it gets better.* vending machine example
28Differential Reinforcement -Commonly used with extinction-Goal is to increase one behavior while decreasing another
29The Difference Between Reinforcement and Bribery - Reinforcement is proactive.- Reinforcement is initially presented before a behavior occurs.
31Function -Every behavior has a function -Function must be determined to appropriately replace behavior-ABC data can often show patterns in behavior-Four basic functions: attention, escape, tangible, automatic-Rule out possible physiological causes
32What is the Function? Antecedent Behavior Consequence Teacher is talking to another teacherStudent comes up to teacher and bitesTeacher says "don't do that!"Student is playing with peerStudent bites peerTeacher comes over and reprimands studentStudent is playing at recessA teacher gasps "oh my!"
33What is the Function? Antecedent Behavior Consequence Student is asked to come sit down for calendar.Student bites teacherTeacher sends student to hallway for time outStudent is doing a worksheetTeacher replaces the worksheet with an easier oneStudent is told to get a pencil out for mathStudent bites peerTeacher puts student on time out
34What is the Function? Antecedent Behavior Consequence Teacher is reading a story to the classStudent comes over and bites teacherStudent is reprimanded but then given a snack.Student is playing with peerStudent bites peerPeer gives student the ballClass is eating snack.Student finishes snack and bites teacherStudent is given book to look at
35What is the Function? Antecedent Behavior Consequence Student is playing in the sandboxStudent bites his own handsStudent continues to playClass sitting at snackStudent bites his juice cupTeacher says, "don't do that!"Teacher calls student over for calendar timeStudent bites his shirt but compliesTeacher ignores
36Choosing an Intervention - After function is determined, an appropriate intervention can be put in place- Two types of approaches: proactive and reactive
37Proactive Approach- Manipulating antecedent events (the environment) to make behavior less likely to occur.
38Proactive Approach -For attention seeking behaviors: -For attention seeking behaviors:-Catch the student being good!-Provide reinforcement for desirable behavior
39Proactive Approach -For escape behaviors: -Make tasks more fun to decrease motivation to escape-Teach appropriate language to ask for a break-Schedule in regular breaks-First/Then chart or picture schedule
40Proactive Approach -For behavior that functions to access tangibles: -Provide access to tangible reinforcement for desirable behaviors-Use a first/then chart
41Proactive Approach-For behaviors that serve a self-stimulatory function:-Make sure the student is constantly engaged in activities-Sensory diet
42Reactive Approach -For attention seeking behaviors: -Provide NO attention-Turn away-Neutral expression-Monotone voice-Replace with appropriate language if possible
43Reactive Approach -For escape behaviors: -Behavioral momentum -Behavioral momentum-Never allow a student to “get out of it” by exhibiting behavior
44Reactive Approach -For behaviors that function as access to tangibles: -Do NOT provide tangible items after the inappropriate behavior-Use behavioral momentum-Replace with appropriate language
45Reactive Approach-For behaviors that serve a self-stimulatory function:-Replace the behavior with something more appropriate-Redirect to a different, appropriate activity
46Tips for Working Through Behavior Behavior cannot be expected to simply stop. It needs to be replaced.
47Replacement Behaviors With...Throwing a bookTurning the pages or throwing a ballRepetitive languageAppropriate conversation initiationBiting siblingBiting chew tube or asking for a snackYelling for attention??
48Tips for Working Through Behavior Do not reprimand the student. Tell them what to do instead.
49Tips for Working Through Behavior Remember the importance of a proactive approach. Catch the student being good!
50What does it feel like to have an Autism Spectrum Disorder? SimulationsWhat does it feel like to have an Autism Spectrum Disorder?