Presentation on theme: "GOALS OF SCIENCE I_________ and un__________ nature E_________ events in _________. –Use ___________________ to make useful ___________________."— Presentation transcript:
GOALS OF SCIENCE I_________ and un__________ nature E_________ events in _________. –Use ___________________ to make useful ___________________.
The Scientific Method There are FIVE main steps to the scientific method: 1.Stating the P_____________ (from an observation) 2.Forming a H_______________ ( hint: ?) 3.Setting up a _________ ____________ 4.R__________ and analyz____the results 5.Drawing c____________
STATING THE PROBLEM This can be in the form of a question or statement. Implies that an observation has been made to lead to a question… Science is based on experimentation and observation Observations can be: –Made directly with your senses Color Taste Shape Feel Smell
INFERENCES In contrast to observations, which are things that we see or measure, inferences are c__________ based only on o___________ –The rule of inferring is to be __________ (makes sense). –They are always tentative, meaning, they are not final explanations –______ ______ __________ when new information is gained, or observations are made
FORMING A HYPOTHESIS A “t_________” statement, a possible explanation that explains known facts and predicts ________ ________. Should be written in the form –“If... then…” –Cause and Effect –Why? Or How?
DESIGNING AN EXPERIMENT Must have several things: –V______________ E__________________ Group(s) –receives all of the conditions of the experiment Independent Variable – one thing that is changed Dependent Variable – measures how the result respond to the independent variable (how it reacts…) C__________________ Group –receives all of the conditions of the experiment. The Control group does not get the independent variable (changed condition) –used as a means for comparison in the experiment –CONSTANTS (things that ______ ______ change) Factors in the experiment that are maintained throughout the experiment, they ___________ the __________ throughout –PROCEDURE Must be clear and detailed
RECORDING & ANALYZING DATA RECORDING DATA –Numerber data should be g_________ and/or tabled –Observations should be written in clear, c_________ sentences. TWO TYPES OF DATA –Qualitative – descriptive; a behavior or appearance –Quantitative – numerical data Independent variable (unit) Dependent variable (unit)
RECORDING & ANALYZING DATA ANALYZING DATA –Attempt to figure out what the collected data means… why did it happen as it did? I____________ variable (unit) D _________ variable (unit)
Graphing Graph –A visual display of information or data Three main types –_________ GRAPH
Line Graph Shows how data _____________________ or shows basic trends Plotting data –Independent variable = __-axis (h________ or below) –Dependent variable = ___-axis (along the ____ or vertical side)
Bar Graph Compares ___________ collected by ___________
Pie Graph Shows how something is broken down into ________ or ______________
FORM CONCLUSIONS Be sure to draw conclusions based ____________________. Make inferences based on _____ ______ and the new knowledge gained in the experiment. _____ ______ restate the procedure or simply restate the results… –How do the results compare to your hypothesis? –How can this data be used further? –What other tests could be done?
Self Assesment 1) Directions: Place the Scientific Method Steps in the right order. Use the numbers 1 through 5 to show which steps come first Recording and Analyzing Results (Graphs) Design a controlled Experiment (Variables) Stating the Problem (from an observation) Conclusion Form a Hypothesis
Self Assessment cont. Designing an Experiment: What is a controlled group? How is the controlled group different from the experimental group? List one thing that you DO NOT do in the conclusion. _____________________