3Air pollution is the primary cause of respiratory illness worldwide
4Clean Air Act Created in 1970 – Amendments added in 1977 & 1990 National Ambient Air Quality StandardsPrimary standardsset limits to protect public healthSecondary standardsset limits to protect public welfare, including protection against decreased visibility, damage to animals, crops, vegetation, and buildings
5Under the Clean Air Act EPA has the responsibility to: Conduct periodic reviews of the NAAQS for the six principal pollutantsEnsure that air quality standards are metReduce emissions of SO2 and NOx that cause acid rain.And…
6Reduce air pollutants such as PM, SOx, and NOx, which can reduce visibility across large regional areasEnsure that sources of toxic air pollutants that may cause cancer and other adverse human health and environmental effects are well controlled and that the risks to public health and the environment are substantially reduced.
7Six Common Air Pollutants OzoneNitrogen DioxideParticulate MatterCarbon MonoxideSulfur DioxideLead
8Units of measure for the "criteria" pollutants are: Parts per million (ppm) by volumeMilligrams per cubic meter of air (mg/m3)Micrograms per cubic meter of air (µg/m3).
9Air Pollution Trends Tracked by the EPA Air Concentrationsactual measurements of pollutant concentrations in the ambient (outside) air at selected monitoring sites throughout the countryEmissionsengineering estimates of the total tons of pollutants released into the air each year.
11Ozone is a gas that occurs both in the Earth's upper atmosphere and at ground level. Ozone can be "good" or "bad" for your health and the environment, depending on its location in the atmosphere.What is ozone?
12How Can Ozone Be Both Good and Bad? Ozone occurs in two layers of the atmosphere.The troposphereThe stratosphere
14The layer closest to the Earth's surface: Troposphere. Here, ground-level or "bad" ozone is an air pollutant that is harmful to breatheIt is a main ingredient of urban smog.It damages crops, trees and other vegetation
15The Stratosphere -Extends upward from about 6 to 30 miles -“Good” Ozone is produced naturally in the stratosphere-It protects life on Earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays.
16What Causes "Bad" Ozone?Ground-level or "bad" ozone is NOT emitted directly into the airIt is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight.
17Some of the major sources of NOx and VOCs Gasoline vaporsChemical solventsEmissions from:-Industrial facilities-Electric utilities-Motor vehicle exhaust
19Coal generates 54% of our electricity, and is the single biggest air polluter in the U.S. Burning coal causes smog, soot, acid rain, global warming, and toxic air emissions.
20In an average year, a typical coal plant generates:
2110,200 tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx), as much as would be emitted by half a million late-model cars. NOx leads to formation of ozone (smog) which inflames the lungs, burning through lung tissue making people more susceptible to respiratory illness.
22and 220 tons of hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOC), which form ozone.
23Gasoline-Powered Vehicles Spew 205,596 tons of VOCs207,384 tons of NOX into the air annually
24How Does "Bad" Ozone Affect Human Health and the Environment How Does "Bad" Ozone Affect Human Health and the Environment? -Chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and congestion. -It can worsen bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma. - Can reduce lung function and inflame the linings of the lungs. Repeated exposure may permanently scar lung tissue.
25NOx and ozone can also affect crops and other plants.
26What YOU Can Do Conserve energy Follow gasoline refueling instructions for efficient vapor recovery.Keep car, boat, and other engines tuned upBe sure your tires are properly inflatedCarpool, use public transportation, bike, or walk
27More that YOU Can DoUse environmentally safe paints and cleaning productsFollow manufacturers' recommendations for use and properly seal cleaners, paints, and other chemicals to prevent evaporation into the air.
32Switch from incandescent light bulbs to Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)
33Air Quality Action Day tips: Conserve electricity and set your air conditioner at a higher temperatureChoose a cleaner commute—share a ride to work or use public transportation. Bicycle or walk to errands when possible.Defer use of gasoline-powered lawn and garden equipment.
34And… Refuel cars and trucks after dusk. Combine errands and reduce tripsLimit engine idling.Use household, workshop, and garden chemicals in ways that keep evaporation to a minimum, or try to delay using them when poor air quality is forecast.
35If EVERYONE pitches in and does what he/she can do, we can all breathe a breath of fresh air!