Presentation on theme: "Desain Kuisioner Survei Konsumsi Pangan (Minggu III) Sumber : Designing Survey Question on Food-Related of Behavioural Change, Ardenne, Mc Manus and Hall,"— Presentation transcript:
Desain Kuisioner Survei Konsumsi Pangan (Minggu III) Sumber : Designing Survey Question on Food-Related of Behavioural Change, Ardenne, Mc Manus and Hall, NatCen, 2011.
Desain Kuisioner Survei Konsumsi Pangan : Berdasarkan Theory of Planned Behaviour Model ingatan sosial yang bertujuan untuk menampilkan pengaruhnya terhadap perubahan sikap
Model TPB Sikap penentu tingkah laku Norma sosial Pengendali Tingkah Laku Faktor demografi-sosial NiatPerilaku Aturan Pembatas tingkah laku Figure adapted from Conner and Sparks (2005).
Desain Kuisioner A.Desain Pengukuran Perilaku Definisikan apa yg akan diukur yg jelas apa yg diinginkan Gunakan satuan ukuran yang tepat, sedapat mungkin gunakan pertanyaan yang spesifik
Table 3:1 Different framings of a question on consumption in the last week Specific behavioursGeneral behaviours Did you eat/ drink any of the following yesterday… (Yes/No to each) …Fresh fruit? …Tinned fruit? …Dried fruit? …Fruit juice? Did you eat any fruit yesterday? Yes No
Table 3:2 Different framings of a question on consumption in the last week Frequency of behaviour Banded frequency of behaviour Number of days on which behaviour occurred Banded number of days on which behaviour occurred In the last week how many times did you do X? In the last week how often do you do X? -Not in the last week -1-3 times -4-6 times -7-9 time -10 times or more On how many days in the last week did you do X? On how many days in the last week did you do X? -Not in the last week -1-3 days -4-6 days -Every day
Table 3.3 Examples of specific and vague quantifiers Specific quantifiersVague quantifiers How often do you eat X? Every day 4-6 times per week 1-3 times per week Less often How often do you eat X? Often Sometimes Rarely Never
Definisikan periode pengamatan dengan jelas Table 3.4 Examples of specific and vague reference periods Specific referenceTypical reference In the last week how often did you eat X? Every day 4-6 times per week 1-3 times per week Less often In a typical week, how often do you eat X? Every day 4-6 times per week 1-3 times per week Less often
Tentukan metode pengumpulan data yang tepat Metode Food Frequensy Dietary History Telepon Pendaftaran Makanan Recall 24 jam Estimated Food Records Inventory Household Food record Food Weighting Food Account
2.Desain Pengukuran Sikap a. Skala Peringkat Table 3.5 Examples of verbal and numeric scales Example of a verbal scale In general, how healthy is your diet? 1. Very unhealthy 2. Fairly unhealthy 3. Neither unhealthy or healthy 4. Fairly healthy 5.Very healthy Example of a numeric scale In general, how healthy is your diet? Unhealthy12345Healthy
b. Jumlah titik dalam skala peringkat Lebih baik jumlah kecil (3 atau 4). c. Skala setuju/tidak setuju Table 3.7 Example of an agree/disagree statement and scale (taken from HSE2007) Healthy foods are enjoyable : Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Table 3.8 Example of an agree/disagree scale and its equivalent item- specific scale Agree/disagree scaleItem-specific scale Healthy foods are usually pleasant: Strongly agree Agree Neither agree or disagree Disagree Strongly disagree Would you say healthy foods are… Always pleasant Usually pleasant Sometimes pleasant, sometimes unpleasant Usually unpleasant Always unpleasant
4. Tipe lain Pertanyaan tentang sikap Table 3.9 Example of an attitudinal ‘tick all that apply’ question Which of the following are important to you, when you are deciding what food to buy? Tick all that apply 1.Price 2.Quality 3.Whether your family eat it 4.Whether something is ‘low fat’ 5.Whether something is ‘low salt’ 6.Whether something is organic 7.None of these.
Table 3.10 Example of an attitudinal ranking task Which of the following is most important to you, when you are deciding what food to buy? Tick one only 1.Price 2.Quality 3.Whether your family eat it 4.Whether something is ‘low fat’ 5.Whether something is ‘low salt’ 6.Whether something is organic 7.None of these (What is next most important thing?)
C. Desain Pengukuran menggunakan model TPB 1.Area kerja : Proses dan jangkauan Table 3:11 Example questions for use in a scoping focus group TPB construct Example Construct Example questions Attitudes towards behaviour Positive beliefs What do you think are the advantages of eating fruit and vegetables? Negative Beliefs What do you think are the disadvantages of eating fruit and vegetables? Subjective Norms Social Influences Do other people influence how much you eat fruit and vegetables? Who? How do they have an influence? Perceived behavioural control General control How easy or difficult is it for you to eat fruit and vegetables? Why? Barriers What are the barriers to you eating more fruit and vegetables? EnablersWhat would encourage you to eat more fruit and vegetables?
2. Pengukuran Sikap pembentuk Perilaku Table 3:12 Measuring beliefs about a behaviour Measures of beliefs about a behaviour Fruit and vegetables are… Expensive 1234567Inexpensive In general, most fruit and vegetables taste… Pleasant 1234567Unpleasant Eating fruit and vegetables is… Healthy 1234567Unhealthy Preparing meals using fruit and vegetables is… Quick 1234567Time consuming
Measures of outcome evaluations: How important are each of the following to you … Buying food that is affordable Not important 1234567Very important Buying food that is tastes good Not important 1234567Very important Buying food that is healthy Not important 1234567Very important Buying food that is quick to prepare Not important 1234567Very important
Alternatif bentuk : Pertanyaan dalam skala verbal dan rangking 3-point verbal answer scales How important are each of the following to you …buying food that is affordable - Very important - Fairly important -Not important at all 5-point verbal answer scales How important are each of the following to you …buying food that is affordable - Very important -Fairly important -Neither important or unimportant -Fairly unimportant -Very unimportant Ranking task Which of these factors is the most important consideration to you when buying food? 1) Buying food that is affordable 2) Buying food that tastes good 3) Buying food that is healthy 4) Buying food that is quick to prepare What is the second most important consideration? What is the third most important consideration?
3. Pengukuran Norma sosial secara subyektif Table 3:14 Measuring social norms (1) Measures of descriptive norms My children think that fast food and takeaway tastes… Pleasant 1234567Unpleasant Measures of injunctive norms My children think I should buy… Less fast food 1234567More fast food Measures of motivation to comply How much pressure do you have from you children to buy fast food or takeaways? No pressure 1234567A lot of pressure How important are each of the following to you … Giving my children food they like Not important 1234567Very important Giving my children food that is healthy Not important 1234567Very important
Pengukuran pengaruh sumber tekanan sosial Types of social pressure: check all that apply Which of the following influence the amount of fast food or take away you eat? - Your children - Your partner or spouse - Other family members - Friends - Advertisements - Special offers or promotions -None of these Types of social pressure: rating scales How much do the following influence the amount of fast food or take away you eat? - Your children (A lot/a little/not at all) - Your partner or spouse (A lot/a little/not at all) - Other family members (A lot/a little/not at all)
Pengukuran kendali Perasaan terhadap perilaku Measuring external influences of control How easy or difficult is for you to … … find fresh fruit and vegetables in your local shop? Difficult1234567 Easy … afford to eat fresh fruit and vegetables every day? Difficult1234567 Easy Measuring internal influences of control How confident are you that… …you know how to prepare meals containing fresh fruit and vegetables? Not confident at all 1234567Very Confident …you could keep to a diet containing more fresh fruit and vegetables? Not confident at all 1234567
Table 3:17 Overall self-assessment of control All things considered, how easy or difficult would it be for you to eat fresh fruit and vegetables a day? - Very easy - Fairly easy - Neither easy nor difficult - Fairly difficult - Very difficult Pengukuran Niat Table 3:18 Examples of how to measure intentions Do you intend to do any of the following in the next 12 months… Eat more fresh fruit and vegetables No intention to 1234567Definitely intend to Eat less fast food or takeaways No intention to 1234567Definitely intend to
Penggunaan Kata yang tepat Keep questions short and to the point Avoid double-barrelled questions Where possible, break long, complicated questions down into a series of shorter, simpler ones. Keep question wording neutral. Avoid jargon, acronyms and technical terms unless you are certain they will be understood by respondents. Remember terminology may be used inconsistently between different organisations or regions. Using definitions can ensure key terms are consistently understood.
Penggunaan Kata yang tepat Avoid vague words or words that could have multiple interpretations. Many commonly used survey words could have multiple interpretations, such as ’you’‘household’, and ‘regularly’. Using definitions can ensure key terms are consistently understood. Definitions and clarifications should come before the answer space to ensure they are read. Avoid lengthy, ungrammatical questions or questions with complicated syntax (such as double-negatives).
4. Pengukuran Pemahaman suatu pengetahuan 5. Pertanyaan yang sensitif 6. Pertanyaan yang spesifik VS Panjang pertanyaan : ▫Kurangi pertanyaan yang mendua (Ambiguitas) ▫Tingkatkan akurasi ▫Tingkatkan daya ingat kembali pada saat melaporkan perilaku ▫Informasi yng lebih detil pada perilaku terkait pangan dan faktor yang mempengaruhi.