2 I. Polymers What is a polymer? Poly = many; mer = part. A polymer is a large molecule consisting of many smaller sub-units bonded together.What is a monomer?A monomer is a sub-unit of a polymer.
3 A. Making and Breaking Polymers How are covalent linkages between monomers formed in the creation of organic polymers?Condensation or dehydration synthesis reactions.Monomers are covalently linked to one another through the removal of water.
7 II. Classes of Organic Molecules: What are the four classes of organic molecules?CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic Acids
8 A. Carbohydrates Sugars Carbo = carbon, hydrate = water; carbohydrates have the molecular formula (CH2O)nFunctions:Store energy in chemical bondsGlucose is the most common monosaccharideGlucose is produced by photosynthetic autotrophs
9 1. Structure of Monosaccharides An OH group is attached to each carbon except one, which is double bonded to an oxygen (carbonyl).
10 Classified according to the size of their carbon chains, varies from 3 to 7 carbons. Triose = 3 carbonsPentose = 5 carbonsHexose = 6 carbons
11 In aqueous solutions many monosaccharides form rings:
12 2. Structure of Disaccharides Double sugar that consists of 2 monosaccharides, joined by a glycosidic linkage.What reaction forms the glycosidic linkage?Condensation synthesis
14 3. PolysaccharidesStructure: Polymers of a few hundred or a few thousand monosaccharides.Functions: energy storage molecules or for structural support:
15 Starch is a plant storage from of energy, easily hydrolyzed to glucose units Cellulose is a fiber-like structureal material - tough and insoluble - used in plant cell wallsGlycogen is a highly branched chain used by animals to store energy in muscles and the liver.Chitin is a polysaccharide used as a structural material in arthropod exoskeleton and fungal cell walls.
16 B. Lipids Structure: Greasy or oily nonpolar compounds Functions: Energy storagemembrane structureProtecting against desiccation (drying out).Insulating against cold.Absorbing shocks.Regulating cell activities by hormone actions.
17 1. Structure of Fatty Acids Long chains of mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms with a -COOH group at one end.When they are part of lipids, the fatty acids resemble long flexible tails.
18 Saturated and Unsaturated Fats liquid at room tempone or more double bonds between carbons in the fatty acids allows for “kinks” in the tailsmost plant fatsSaturated fats:have only single C-C bonds in fatty acid tailssolid at room tempmost animal fats
25 4. WaxesFunction:Lipids that serve as coatings for plant parts and as animal coverings.
26 5. Steroids Structure: Four carbon rings with no fatty acid tails Functions:Component of animal cell membranesModified to form sex hormones
27 C. Proteins Structure: Polypeptide chains Consist of peptide bonds between 20 possible amino acid monomersHave a 3 dimensional globular shape
28 1. Functions of ProteinsEnzymes which accelerate specific chemical reactions up to 10 billion times faster than they would spontaneously occur.Structural materials, including keratin (the protein found in hair and nails) and collagen (the protein found in connective tissue).
29 Specific binding, such as antibodies that bind specifically to foreign substances to identify them to the body's immune system.Specific carriers, including membrane transport proteins that move substances across cell membranes, and blood proteins, such as hemoglobin, that carry oxygen, iron, and other substances through the body.
30 Contraction, such as actin and myosin fibers that interact in muscle tissue. Signaling, including hormones such as insulin that regulate sugar levels in blood.
31 2. Structure of Amino Acid Monomers Consist of an asymmetric carbon covalently bonded to:HydrogenAmino groupCarboxyl (acid) groupVariable R group specific to each amino acid
32 Properties of Amino Acids Grouped by polarityVariable R groups (side chains) confer different properties to each amino acid:polar, water soluble.non-polar, water insolublepositively chargednegatively charged.
33 4 levels of protein structure: primarysecondarytertiaryquaternary
34 3. Primary Structure Unique sequence of amino acids in a protein Slight change in primary structure can alter functionDetermined by genesCondensation synthesis reactions form the peptide bonds between amino acids
38 5. Tertiary StructureIrregular contortions of a protein due to bonding between R groupsWeak bonds:H bonding between polar side chainsionic bonding between charged side chainshydrophobic and van der Waals interactionsStrong bonds:disulfide bridges form strong covalent linkages
42 Factors That Determine Protein Conformation Occurs during protein synthesis within cellDepends on physical conditions of environmentpH, temperature, salinity, etc.Change in environment may lead to denaturation of proteinDenatured protein is biologically inactiveCan renature if primary structure is not lost
43 D. Nucleic Acids Two kinds: DNA: RNA: double stranded can self replicatemakes up genes which code for proteinsis passed from one generation to anotherRNA:single strandedfunctions in actual synthesis of proteins coded for by DNAis made from the DNA template molecule