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THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES. YOU MUST KNOW… THE ROLE OF DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS IN THE FORMATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND HYDROLYSIS IN.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES. YOU MUST KNOW… THE ROLE OF DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS IN THE FORMATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND HYDROLYSIS IN."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES

2 YOU MUST KNOW… THE ROLE OF DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS IN THE FORMATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND HYDROLYSIS IN THE DIGESTION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS HOW TO RECOGNIZE THE FOUR BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY THEIR STRUCTURAL FORMULAS

3 YOU MUST KNOW… THE CELLULAR FUNCTIONS OF ALL FOUR COMPOUNDS THE FOUR STRUCTURAL LEVELS THAT PROTEINS CAN GO THROUGH TO REACH THEIR FINAL SHAPE (CONFORMATION) AND THE DENATURING IMPACT THAT HEAT AND pH CAN HAVE ON PROTEIN STRUCTURE

4 CONCEPT 5.1 MOST MACROMOLECULES ARE POLYMERS, BUILT FROM MONOMERS

5 POLYMERS ARE LONG CHAINS OF MONOMERS CONDENSATION OR DEHYDRATION REACTIONS CREATE POLYMERS FROM MONOMERS. TWO MONOMERS ARE JOINED BY REMOVING ONE MOLECULE OF WATER dehydration MONOMERS POLYMERS reactions H 2 O

6 HYDROLYSIS OCCURS WHEN WATER IS ADDED TO SPLIT LARGE MOLECULES H 2 O hydrolysis POLYMERS MONOMERS

7 CONCEPT 5.2 CARBOHYDRATES SERVE AS FUEL AND BUILDING MATERIAL

8 CARBOHYDRATES EXIST IN A RATIO OF: 1 CARBON: 2 HYDROGEN: 1 OXYGEN MONOSACCHARIDES ARE THE MONOMERS EX. GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE, GALACTOSE POLYSACCHARIDES ARE THE POLYMERS EX. STARCH, CELLULOSE, GLYCOGEN

9 TWO FUNCTIONS OF POLYSACCHARIDES ENERGY STORAGE STARCH IN PLANTS, GLYCOGEN IN ANIMALS STRUCTURAL SUPPORT CELLULOSE IN PLANT CELL WALLS, CHITIN FOUND IN EXOSKELETONS

10 CONCEPT 5.3 LIPIDS ARE A DIVERSE GROUP OF HYDROPHOBIC MOLECULES LIPIDS ARE HYDROPHOBIC MADE UP OF 3 F.A. AND A GLYCEROL FATTY ACIDS INCLUDE HYDROCARBON CHAINS OF VARIOUS LENGTHS. THEY ARE NONPOLAR AND THEREFORE HYDROPHOBIC.

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12 SATURATED F.A. HAVE NO DOUBLE BONDS BETWEEN CARBONS TEND TO PACK SOLIDLY AT ROOM TEMPERATURE ARE LINKED TO HEART DISEASE ARE COMMONLY PRODUCED BY ANIMALS EX. BUTTER

13 UNSATURATED F.A. HAVE SOME C=C RESULTING IN KINKS TEND TO BE LIQUID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE ARE COMMONLY PRODUCED BY PLANTS EX. CORN OIL AND OLIVE OIL

14 FUNCTIONS OF FATS ENERGY STORAGE – YIELDS 9 CAL/GM PROTECTION OF VITAL ORGANS AND INSULATION FAT IS STORED IN ADIPOSE CELLS

15 PHOSPHOLIPIDS MAKE UP CELL MEMBRANE HAVE A GLYCEROL BACKBONE (HEAD) THAT IS HYDROPHILIC HAVE 2 F.A. TAILS THAT ARE HYDROPHOBIC ARE ARRANGED IN A BILAYER IN FORMING THE CELL MEMBRANE HYDROPHILIC HEADS ON THE OUTSIDE OF MEMBRANE

16 STEROIDS MADE UP OF 4 RINGS THAT ARE FUSED TOGETHER CHOLESTEROL IS A STEROID AND IS A COMMON COMPONENT OF CELL MEMBRANES ESTROGEN AND TESTOSTERONE ARE STEROID HORMONES

17 CONCEPT 5.4 PROTEINS HAVE MANY STRUCTURES, RESULTING IN A WIDE RANGE OF FUNCTIONS

18 PROTEINS POLYMERS MADE UP OF A.A. MONOMERS A.A. CONTAIN A CENTRAL CARBON BONDED TO A CARBOXYL GROUP, AN AMINO GROUP, A HYDROGEN ATOM, AND AN R GROUP (VARIABLE GROUP) PEPTIDE BONDS LINK A.A. FORMED BY DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS FUNCTION DEPENDS ON THE ORDER AND NUMBER OF A.A.

19 4 LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE PRIMARY – THE UNIQUE SEQUENCE IN WHICH A.A. ARE JOINED SECONDARY – REFERS TO ONE OF TWO THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES THAT ARE THE RESULT OF HYDROGEN BONDING - ALPHA HELIX IS COILED SHAPE - BETA PLEATED SHEET IS AN ACCORDION SHAPE

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21 4 LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE TERTIARY – RESULTS IN A COMPLEX GLOBULAR SHAPE, DUE TO INTERACTIONS BETWEEN R-GROUPS, VAN DER WAALS INTERACTIONS, HYDROGEN BOND, AND DISULFIDE BRIDGES GLOBULAR PROTEINS SUCH AS ENZYMES ARE HELD IN POSITION BY THESE R-GROUP INTERACTIONS

22 4 LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE QUATERNARY – REFERS TO THE ASSOCIATION OF TWO OR MORE POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN INTO ONE LARGE PROTEIN EX. Hgb - IT IS COMPOSED OF FOUR CHAINS

23 PROTEIN SHAPE CRUCIAL TO PROTEIN FUNCTION WHEN A PROTEIN DOESNT FOLD PROPERLY, ITS FUNCTION IS CHANGED CAN BE THE RESULT OF A SINGLE A.A. SUBSTITUTION – ABNORMAL Hgb TYPICAL OF SICKLE CELL (A MUTANT ADENINE REPLACES THYMINE AND CREATES VALINE INSTEAD OF GLUTAMIC ACID)

24 CHAPERONINS PROTEIN MOLECULES THAT ASSIST IN THE PROPER FOLDING OF PROTEINS WITHIN CELLS

25 DENATURATION OCCURS WHEN A PROTEIN IS DENATURED WHEN IT LOSES ITS SHAPE AND ABILIY TO FUNCTION DUE TO HEAT, A CHANGE IN pH, OR SOME OTHER DISTURBANCE

26 CONCEPT 5.5 NUCLEIC ACIDS STORE AND TRANSMIT HEREDITARY INFORMATION

27 DNA AND RNA TWO NUCLEIC ACIDS MONOMERS ARE NUCLEOTIDES MADE UP OF - NITROGENOUS BASES (A, T, G, C, U) - PENTOSE (5 CARBON) SUGAR - PHOSPHATE GROUP

28 DNA MOLECULE OF HEREDITY IS A DOUBLE-STRANDED HELIX A, T, G, C ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES WILL HYDROGEN BOND TO THYMINE NUCLEOTIDES, AND CYTOSINE TO GUANINE

29 RNA SINGLE-STRANDED A, U, G, C IMPORTANT IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS


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