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Workers, company and national institutions: studying the quality of work of Portuguese and Swedish middle managers of a Swedish multinational company Margarida.

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Presentation on theme: "Workers, company and national institutions: studying the quality of work of Portuguese and Swedish middle managers of a Swedish multinational company Margarida."— Presentation transcript:

1 Workers, company and national institutions: studying the quality of work of Portuguese and Swedish middle managers of a Swedish multinational company Margarida M. Barroso International Conference Adressing Quality of Work in Europe Sofia, Bulgaria, October 2012

2 Main research questions QoW in qualified and managerial occupations Are qualified workers in a better position to face the challenges that the knowledge society brought to quality of work? QoW in multinational contexts of work Articulation of national, organizational and individual determinants of quality of work

3 Methodology and empirical objects Macro Country-level (Institutional context) (Secondary data) Micro Individual-level Trajectories and work experiences (Interviews) Meso Company-level Organizational policies and practices (Internal documentation, interviews)

4 Methodology and empirical objects Countries Portugal Sweden Company Multinational company of Swedish origin One store in Portugal Two stores in Sweden Individuals 16 Middle managers Semi-structured interviews Approaching QoW Workers own definition and evaluation of quality of working life Evaluation of specific working conditions

5 QoW: definition and operationalization Walton, 1972Colasanto et al, 1987 Jencks, Perman e Rainwater, 1988 Clark, 1998, 2004 Kallerberg, Ruskin, Hudson, 2000 Sirgy, Efraty, Siegel, Lee, 2001 Adequate and fair compensation Safe and healthy working conditions Immediate oportunity to use and develop human capacities Future oportunity for continued growth and security Social integration in the work organization Constitutionalism in the work organization Work and the total life space Social relevance of work life Task complexity Autonomy Control Subjective evaluation of work Pay Fringe benefits Hours Occupations Training and promotion Hazards Educational requirements Technical characteristics Autonomy Authority Organizational setting Pay Hours of work Future prospects – promotion and job security How difficult is the job Job content (interest, prestige and independence) Interpersonal relationships Pay Health insurance Pension benefits Health and safety needs Economic and family needs Social needs Esteem needs Actualization needs Knowledge needs Aesthetics needs Ritter e Anker, 2002Gallie, 2003, 2007a McGovern, Smeaton e Hill, 2004 Kalleberg e Vaisey, 2005Martel e Dupuis, 2006Green, 2006 Pay Non-wage benefits Nature of work Autonomy and independence Opportunities for promotion Opportunities for skill upgrading Skills and training Autonomy, task quality and teamwork Presentation, participation and commitment Job security and the welfare safety net Pay Health insurance Pension benefeits Opportunities for career progression and promotion Earnings Fringe benefits Autonomy Control Job security Oportunities of advancement Nature of the job Physical context Psychosocial context Effort Work intensification Discretion Wages Risk Well-being Gallie, 2007b Davoine, Erhel, Guergoat-Lariviere, 2008 Leschke e Watt, 2008a, 2008b Dahl, Nesheim, Olsen, 2009 Back-Wiklund, van der Lippe, den Dulk, Doorne- Huiskes, 2011 … Skills Discretion and autonomy Opportunities for skill development Job security Work-family balance Socio-economic security Education and training Working conditions Gender and work-life balance Wages Non-standard ways of employment Working time and work- life balance Working conditions and job security Health and safety at the workplace Skills and career development Collective interest representation and voice Job (in)security Pay and fringe benefits Intrinsic job rewards Work intensity Skills Autonomy and control Working hours Pressure Job insecurity Commuting time Career demands Control Social support Support from colleagues/managers Training Hierarchical position

6 QoW: definition and operationalization ILO – decent workEC – quality of work (Laeken indicators)Eurofound – Quality of work Safe work Unaceptable work Adequate earnings and productive work Stability and security of work Social protection Employment opportunities Social dialogue and workplace relations Decent hours Balancing work and family life Fair treatment in employment Economic and social context of decent work Health and safety at work Flexibility and security Social dialogue and workers involvement Lifelong learning and career development Work organisation and work-life balance Gender equality Inclusion and access to the labour market Diversity and non-discrimination Intrinsic job quality Overall economic performance and productivity Health and well-being of workers Career and employment security Developing skills and competences Reconciling work and life Literature Health Salary Extra-salary benefits Employment security Social protection Career progression Social dialogue Skills Hours Autonomy Work-life balance Social integration Well-being UNECE/ILO/Eurofound – Harmonization model Safety and ethics of employment Income and benefits from employment Working hours and balancing work and non- working life Security of employment and social protection Social dialogue Skills development and lifelong learning Workplace relationships and intrinsic nature of work Aspects workers value at work (ESS, 2010) Employment security Reconciliation of work and family Salary Autonomy Training Model of operationalization of quality of work 1. Health and security 2. Salary and benefits 3. Employment security and social protection 4. Social dialogue 5. Skills development 6. Work organisation 7. Work-life integration 8. Interpersonal cooperation 9. Well-being

7 Results Country-level contexts of work Company-level policies and practices Individual-level: life trajectories, experiences and preferences

8 Results Country-level contexts of work SwedenPortugal Centralized and decentralized levels of collective bargaining; weak State intervenction National and company level Centralized collective bargaining, strong State intervenction Sectoral level High trade union densityLow trade union density Universalistic system of social protectionSub-protective system of social protection Qualified populationLow qualified population Less unequal distribution of incomeVery unequal distribution of income

9 Results Country-level contexts of work Better working conditions in Sweden: Health injuries Salaries Employment security Participation at work Participation in training Working hours Autonomy Work-life integration Satisfaction with working conditions

10 Results Country-level contexts of work Mean montly earnings, Total employed population, 2010, pps Source: Eurostat, 2010

11 Results Country-level contexts of work Mean montly earnings, Professionals, 2010, pps Source: Eurostat, 2010

12 Results Country-level contexts of work Mean montly earnings, Managers, 2010, pps Source: Eurostat, 2010

13 Results Country-level contexts of work In-work at-risk of poverty rate, Total, 2010, % Source: Eurostat, 2010

14 Results Country-level contexts of work In-work at-risk of poverty rate, ISCED 5-6, 2010, % Source: Eurostat, 2010

15 Results Country-level contexts of work Participation in education and training, total, 2011, % Source: Eurostat, 2011

16 Results Country-level contexts of work Participation in education and training, ISCO88 1-3, 2011, % Source: Eurostat, 2011

17 Results Country-level contexts of work Company-level policies and practices Individual-level: life trajectories, experiences and preferences

18 Results Company-level policies and practices Global guidelines Code of ethics Diversity policy Recruitment Skill development Career progression and performance evaluation Work organization Communication and branding Country specifications and adjustments Salary Social dialogue Work-life integration Benefits Corporate responsibility

19 Results Country-level contexts of work Company-level policies and practices Individual-level: life trajectories, experiences and preferences

20 Results Individual-level: life trajectories, experiences and preferences What makes a good work? Time, family and leisure Money, confort, consumption Good aspects of work: Learning and personal development Autonomy and criativity Work relations Utility, motivation, satisfaction Bad aspects of work: Procedures, deadlines, pressure

21 Discussion Importance of combining different levels of analysis Importance of organizations for the promotion of quality of working life Multinationals: between standardization and regional adjustment

22 References Clark, A. (1998), Measures of job satisfaction: what makes a good job? Evidence from OECD countries, OECD Labour market and Social Policy Occasional Papers, 34, OECD Publishing. Clark, A. (1997), "Job Satisfaction and Gender: Why Are Women So Happy At Work?", Labour Economics, 4, pp Colasanto, M., M. Ambrosini, G. Arrigo, P. Auer, A. Cascioli, M. Cevoli, Y. Delamotte, A. Dirrheimer, A. Iori, E.M. Kassalow, R. Merli e B. Wilpert (1987), Innovazione e regolazione nellimpresa, Milão, Franco Angeli. Dahl, Svenn-Age, Torstein Neshein, Karen M. Olsen (2009), Quality of work – concept and measurement, RECOWE-Working Paper 5. Davoine, L., C. Erhel, and M. Guernoat-Lariviere (2008b), « A taxonomy of European labour markets using quality indicators », Rapport de recherche, 45, Centre détudes de Lemploi. EC (2001), Employment and social policies: a framework for investing in quality, COM (2001) 313, Brussels, European Commission. Erhel, C., e M. Guergoat-Larivière (2010), Job Quality and Labour Market Performance, Ceps working document 330, Centre for European Policy Studies, available at Eurofound (2012), 5 th European Working Conditions Survey, Overview report, Luxembourg, Publications Office of The European Union. Eurofound (2002), Quality of work and employment in Europe: Issues and Challenges, Foundation paper 1, Fevereiro, available at: Eurostat (2009, 2010, 2011), Labour force survey, available at : Gallie, D. (2007a), Production regimes and the quality of employment in Europe, Annual Review of Sociology, 33, Gallie D. (2007b), Employment regimes and the quality of work, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Gallie, Duncan (2003), The quality of working life: is Scandinavia different?, European Sociological Review, 19, 1, Green, Francis (2006), Demanding Work, The paradox of job quality in the affluent economy, Princeton and Oxford, Princeton University Press. ILO (1999), Decent work. Report of the Director-General to the 87 th session of the International Labour Conference, Genebra. Kalleberg, A. E S. Vaisey (2005), Pathways to a good job: perceived work quality among machinists in North America, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 43, 3, Kalleberg, Arne L., Barbara F. Reskin, and Ken Hudson (2000), Bad Jobs in America: Standard and Nonstandard Employment Relations and Job Quality in the United States. American Sociological Review 65: Martel, J.P., and G. Dupuis (2006), Quality of work life: theoretical and methodological problems, and presentation of a new model and measuring instrument, Social Indicators Research, 77, McGovern P., D. Smeaton, S. Hill (2004), Bad jobs in Britain: Nonstandard Employment and Job Quality, Work and Occupations, 31, OECD (2010, 2011), Labour market statistics, available at: Sirgy, M. Joseph, D. Efraty, P. Siegel, D.J. Lee (2001), A new measure of quality of working life based on need satisfaction and spillover theories, Social Indicators Research, 55, UNECE (2009), Statistical measurement of quality of employment, conceptual framework and indicators, available at: Walton, R. (1973), Quality of work life: what is it?, Sloan Management Review, 15, 1,

23 Extras

24 Results Company-level policies and practices Company-level: organizational policy and practices PTSW Health and Security The companys health and security policy is applied in a uniformed way in all units of the multinational group and is defined in the code of conduct. Besides, workers are provided with a health insurance and can benefit from the presence of a doctor at the workplace. SalaryAs a way of minimizing hierarchical differences, this company does not encourage high salaries in managerial positions. Salaries defined by the collective agreement between unions and employers (the company is part of the employers association), independently of the workers membership of trade unions. Salaries defined by the collective agreement between unions and employers. Salaries are dependent on the conditions established by each trade union. Employment security and social protection The guidelines of the multinational group determine that after a 6 month period of probation, workers should be given permanent contracts. The company presents itself as an employer that provides workers a long-term career development plan. The process of selection, recruitment and career progression is standardized in the multinational group. Part-time workers usually have non-permanent contracts.Part-time workers tend to have permanent contracts. Social dialogue The companys code of ethics affirms workers right to association and condemns any attempt of impeding the free organization of workers. The features of workers involvement and participation in this company are, though, highly influenced by the institutional setting of the country and by its regular practices regarding association. Inexistence of company-level trade union. Low trade union density. Company-level trade unions. High trade union density. Skills and competencies The company strategy of career development and lifelong learning is very focused on the individual determination. Each worker has an annual training plan that includes the objectives to be fulfilled and the resources that should be mobilized to obtain it. Apart from technical training modules specific to the business and internal strategy, workers are offered a managing programme that allows them to progress hierarchically, tought in after-labour time schedule. Workers can learn languages and continue their studies with probable financial contributions from the company. For many years, having a formal higher degree was not considered to be important in the company in order to access high level positions. In managerial and professional positions most workers have a high degree and these are very common in the areas of business, management, and economics, for example. It is more common to find professionals in these occupations without a high education degree, or for fields of study more spread (music, arts, and politics, for example). Work organisation Production procedures are standardized in the multinational group. Subsidiaries can exceptionally adapt some of these procedures to the local context. Workers whose occupations are less exposed to normalized norms and procedures, like managers and professionals, enjoy a relative degree of autonomy as long as they fulfill the final objectives. The company has a policy against long hours of work. Work-family integration The company presents itself as a family-friendly employer and develops work-life balance practices in most of the subsidiaries. The company has a flexible working hours policy, gives workers the possibility of working part-time, and facilitates the articulation with personal life (authorization to leave early or unexpectedly, for example). Extension of the legal period of parental leave. Birth benefit. Birth present. Protocols with chèches and kindergardens close to the workplace. Interpersonal relations The company has institutionalized practices to reduce hierarchical barriers (not using titles, use of uniform in all occupational categories) and to promote interpersonal cooperation between colleagues (team work, team building activities, parties…). Well-beingLow cost meals are available for all workers. Light meals are available for free. The company establishes protocols with gyms, pharmacies and other services to provide lower prices to its workers. Workers birthday, seniority, weddings, together with Christmas and other festivities are celebrated and workers are offered gifts.

25 Results Individual-level: life trajectories and experiences Individual-level: organizational policy and practices PTSW Health and Security Among the group of interviewees there was no record of serious work-related injuries or health problems. Some reported periods of major work intensity that lead to feelings of stress and fatigue. Salary Most of the interviewees considered that their salary could be better and recognized that they could have been paid better in other companies. They affirm that their salaries can, though, respond to their needs. Employment security and social protection All interviewees had a permanent contract and their job was generally considered to be safe. These workers didnt show much concern with losing their job and imagine themselves working for this same company in the long-term. Social dialogue Inexistence of past or present experiences of trade union membership or organization. Most interviewees were members of a trade union. The main reason pointed out as an advantage of being members of a trade union was the access to the unemployment protection (Ghent). The interviewees that were not unionized had already been. Skills and competencies Most interviewees reported an adequacy between the base competencies acquired in formal education (critical thinking) as important to their jobs, but recognized that the technical skills are better attained at work. They generally considered to be satisfied with the learning and training opportunities that their jobs provide and were motivated to obtain more and different competencies over time and to change to other functions within the organization. Work organisation Although the levels of reported autonomy were largely high, nearly all interviewees showed some dissatisfaction with the rigid work procedures. Also, the rejection of long hours of work doesnt seem to avoid processes of work intensification and tiredness. Work-family integration The company is considered a family-friendly employer by the group of professionals in this study. Most of them declared they have a good balance between the different spheres of life. Some of them came to this company in order to have a better satisfaction in this work-domain. The policy of the company was largely evaluated as being positive in this matter. Interpersonal relations A good organizational climate was reported by all workers. The work context was described as informal and familiar. Team work, extra-work activities and the non-use of academic titles were presented as elements that promote the good working environment. Well-beingMost interviewees considered that their work is useful and showed motivation and personal realization and satisfaction with their work.

26 Source: Eurostat, 2012 ISCED 5-6 employment, by occupation

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