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1 The Social Survey ICBS Nurit Dobrin December 2010.

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1 1 The Social Survey ICBS Nurit Dobrin December 2010

2 2 The Social Survey Annual survey, new sample each year, individuals age 20 and over Provides updated information of living conditions and the welfare of the population Core: Geographic, demographic and socio-economic information, including attitudes Annual subject – recent years: Views concerning government services, welfare, social mobility, religiosity, family, health and lifestyle, use of technology. Social Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

3 3 Promotion of employees in the workplace: Are men promoted more then women? Based on the Israeli Social survey 2008 Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

4 4 Table 1. Employment status by sex, age Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

5 5 Table 2. Full-time versus part-time employment by sex, age 25-64, 2008 Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

6 6 Diagram 1. Gross income from work, in NIS, by sex, 2008, percentages Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

7 7 Promotion at work place Has there been any change in your status at work (comparing the beginning of your employment to the current period)? Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

8 8 Diagram 2. Employees reporting promotion at work, by seniority and sex, 2008, percentages seniority Up to 4 years Total Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

9 9 Occupation, gender and promotion Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

10 10 Table 3. Rate of promotion of employees by occupation 1 and sex, 2008 Social Survey, percentages 1 Based on occupations at a 2-digit differentiation level. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

11 11 Diagram 3. Employees by gross monthly income, sex, education and promotion, 2008, percentages Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

12 12 Diagram 4. Employees with over five years of seniority in the workplace by number of weekly work hours, workplace promotion, and sex, 2008, percentages Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

13 13 Diagram 4. Employees with over five years of seniority by age of youngest child in the household and workplace promotion, 2008, percentages Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

14 14 Table 4. The effect of sex and other background variables on workplace promotion logistical regression, odds ratio Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

15 15 Diagram 5. Estimated probability of promotion at work according to the model women men Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

16 16 Conclusions and Discussion Overall, the percentage of women reporting promotion was lower than the percentage of men The literature indicates that men are more motivated by promotion women are over-represented in jobs characterized by low wage mobility, or Dead end jobs. These jobs are especially present in the public sector Women report more damage in the occupational sphere as a result of childbirth. Lower participation of women in the labor market in terms of number of work hours and full-time versus part-time work. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

17 17 …Conclusions and Discussion On the other hand, when women and men hold the same positions, both have a similar level of wage mobility. At similar income levels, women are promoted more than men, probably due to a relatively high rate of academic degree holders among these women. A similar outcome is obtained when the number of work hours is held constant: in each category of work hours per week, women are promoted more. When the youngest child is of mandatory schooling age or older, women are promoted more. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

18 18 …Conclusions and Discussion The multivariate analysis also demonstrates the complex outcome: – When work hours are not held constant, the sex of the employee has no significant effect on the probability of promotion. – Only when work hours are taken into consideration does the correlation become significant – but it is women who have a higher probability of promotion. –Thus, the sex of the employee has an effect only when the other characteristics of the work, where the distribution of men and women is not random, are included in the analysis. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

19 19 The Simpson Paradox The question whether women are promoted in the workplace less than men appears to have two different answers. As we have seen, the solution to the paradox lies in the relatively low representation of women in groups characterized by higher rates of promotion (higher wage earners, profitable occupations, workers who invest a large number of work hours, and more). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

20 20 Explanations Several possible explanations for the fact that when various demographical and occupational variables are held constant, women report more promotion: –Women reach these positions as a result of promotion, whereas men reach them by other means, such as due to initial terms of employment or contract parameters. –Women who invest the work hours and accumulate the seniority allowing progress at work may attain higher achievements, and therefore earn more promotion than men. –A different interpretation by men and women of promotion in status or position, as the survey was worded. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

21 21 Nurit Dobrin, the Social Survey ICBS


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