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ninth edition STEPHEN P. ROBBINS PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama MARY COULTER © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Planning Tools and Techniques Chapter 9
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–2 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Techniques for Assessing the Environment List the different approaches to assess the environment.List the different approaches to assess the environment. Explain what competitor intelligence is and ways that managers can do it legally and ethically.Explain what competitor intelligence is and ways that managers can do it legally and ethically. Describe how managers can improve the effectiveness of forecasting.Describe how managers can improve the effectiveness of forecasting. List the steps in the benchmarking process.List the steps in the benchmarking process. Techniques for Allocating Resources List the four techniques for allocating resources.List the four techniques for allocating resources. Describe the different types of budgets.Describe the different types of budgets. Explain what a Gantt chart and a load chart do.Explain what a Gantt chart and a load chart do.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–3 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Techniques for Allocating Resources (cont’d) Describe how PERT network analysis works.Describe how PERT network analysis works. Understand how to compute a breakeven point.Understand how to compute a breakeven point. Describe how managers can use linear programming.Describe how managers can use linear programming. Contemporary Planning Techniques Explain why flexibility is so important to today’s planning techniques.Explain why flexibility is so important to today’s planning techniques. Describe project management.Describe project management. List the steps in the project planning process.List the steps in the project planning process. Discuss why scenario planning is an important planning tool.Discuss why scenario planning is an important planning tool.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–4 Assessing the Environment Environmental ScanningEnvironmental Scanning The screening of large amounts of information to anticipate and interpret change in the environment. Competitor Intelligence The process of gathering information about competitors—who they are; what they are doing –Is not spying but rather careful attention to readily accessible information from employees, customers, suppliers, the Internet, and competitors themselves. May involve reverse engineering of competing products to discover technical innovations.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–5 Assessing the Environment (cont’d) Environmental Scanning (cont’d)Environmental Scanning (cont’d) Global Scanning Screening a broad scope of information on global forces that might affect the organization. Has value to firms with significant global interests. Draws information from sources that provide global perspectives on world-wide issues and opportunities.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–6 Assessing the Environment (cont’d) ForecastingForecasting The part of organizational planning that involves creating predictions of outcomes based on information gathered by environmental scanning. Facilitates managerial decision making. Is most accurate in stable environments.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–7 Assessing the Environment (cont’d) Forecasting TechniquesForecasting Techniques Quantitative forecasting Applying a set of mathematical rules to a series of hard data to predict outcomes (e.g., units to be produced). Qualitative forecasting Using expert judgments and opinions to predict less than precise outcomes (e.g., direction of the economy). Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) SoftwareCollaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) Software A standardized way for organizations to use the Internet to exchange data.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–8 Exhibit 9–1Forecasting Techniques Quantitative Time series analysis Regression models Econometric models Economic indicators Substitution effect Qualitative Jury of opinion Sales force composition Customer evaluation
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–9 Making Forecasting More Effective 1.Use simple forecasting methods. 2.Compare each forecast with its corresponding “no change” forecast. 3.Don’t rely on a single forecasting method. 4.Don’t assume that the turning points in a trend can be accurately identified. 5.Shorten the time period covered by a forecast. 6.Remember that forecasting is a developed managerial skill that supports decision making.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–10 Benchmarking The search for the best practices among competitors and noncompetitors that lead to their superior performance.The search for the best practices among competitors and noncompetitors that lead to their superior performance. By analyzing and copying these practices, firms can improve their performance.By analyzing and copying these practices, firms can improve their performance.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–11 Exhibit 9–2Steps in Benchmarking Source: Based on Y.K. Shetty, “Aiming High: Competitive Benchmarking for Superior Performance,” Long Range Planning. February 1993, p. 42.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–12 Allocating Resources Types of ResourcesTypes of Resources The assets of the organization Financial: debt, equity, and retained earnings Physical: buildings, equipment, and raw materials Human: experiences, skills, knowledge, and competencies Intangible: brand names, patents, reputation, trademarks, copyrights, and databases
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–13 Allocating Resources: Budgeting BudgetsBudgets Are numerical plans for allocating resources (e.g., revenues, expenses, and capital expenditures). Are used to improve time, space, and use of material resources. Are the most commonly used and most widely applicable planning technique for organizations.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–14 Exhibit 9–3Types of Budgets Source: Based on R.S. Russell and B.W. Taylor III. Production and Operations Management (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995), p. 287.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–15 Exhibit 9–4Suggestions for Improving Budgeting Collaborate and communicate. Be flexible. Goals should drive budgets—budgets should not determine goals. Coordinate budgeting throughout the organization. Use budgeting/planning software when appropriate. Remember that budgets are tools. Remember that profits result from smart management, not because you budgeted for them.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–16 Allocating Resources: Scheduling SchedulesSchedules Plans that allocate resources by detailing what activities have to be done, the order in which they are to be completed, who is to do each, and when they are to be completed. Represent the coordination of various activities.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–17 Allocating Resources: Charting Gantt ChartGantt Chart A bar graph with time on the horizontal axis and activities to be accomplished on the vertical axis. Shows the expected and actual progress of various tasks. Load ChartLoad Chart A modified Gantt chart that lists entire departments or specific resources on the vertical axis. Allows managers to plan and control capacity utilization.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–18 Exhibit 9–5A Gantt Chart
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–19 Exhibit 9–6A Load Chart
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–20 Allocating Resources: Analysis Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) A flow chart diagram that depicts the sequence of activities needed to complete a project and the time or costs associated with each activity. Events: endpoints for completion. Activities: time required for each activity. Slack time: the time that a completed activity waits for another activity to finish so that the next activity, which depends on the completion of both activities, can start. Critical path: the path (ordering) of activities that allows all tasks to be completed with the least slack time.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–21 Exhibit 9–7Steps in Developing a PERT Network 1.Identify every significant activity that must be achieved for a project to be completed. 2.Determine the order in which these events must be completed. 3.Diagram the flow of activities from start to finish, identifying each activity and its relationship to all other activities. 4.Compute a time estimate for completing each activity. 5.Using the network diagram that contains time estimates for each activity, determine a schedule for the start and finish dates of each activity and for the entire project.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–22 Exhibit 9–8Events and Activities in Constructing an Office Building
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–23 Exhibit 9–9A Visual PERT Network for Constructing an Office Building Critical Path: A - B - C - D - G - H - J - K
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–24 Allocating Resources: Analysis (cont’d) Breakeven AnalysisBreakeven Analysis Is used to determine the point at which all fixed costs have been recovered and profitability begins. Fixed cost (FC) Variable costs (VC) Total Fixed Costs (TFC) Price (P) The Break-even Formula:The Break-even Formula:
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–25 Exhibit 9–10Breakeven Analysis
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–26 Allocating Resources: Analysis (cont’d) Linear ProgrammingLinear Programming A technique that seeks to solve resource allocation problems using the proportional relationships between two variables.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–27 Exhibit 9–11Production Data for Cinnamon-Scented Products
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–28 Exhibit 9–12Graphical Solution to Linear Programming Problem Max. Assembly Max. Manufacturing Max. Assembly Max. Profits
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–29 Contemporary Planning Techniques ProjectProject A one-time-only set of activities that has a definite beginning and ending point time. Project ManagementProject Management The task of getting a project’s activities done on time, within budget, and according to specifications. Define project goals Identify all required activities, materials, and labor Determine the sequence of completion
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–30 Exhibit 9–13Project Planning Process Source: Based on R.S. Russell and B.W. Taylor III, Production and Operations Management (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995), p. 287.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–31 Contemporary Planning Techniques (cont’d) ScenarioScenario A consistent view of what the future is likely to be. Scenario PlanningScenario Planning An attempt not try to predict the future but to reduce uncertainty by playing out potential situations under different specified conditions. Contingency PlanningContingency Planning Developing scenarios that allow managers determine in advance what their actions should be should a considered event actually occur.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–32 Exhibit 9–14Preparing for Unexpected Events Identify potential unexpected events. Determine if any of these events would have early indicators. Set up an information gathering system to identify early indicators. Have appropriate responses (plans) in place if these unexpected events occur. Source: S. Caudron, “Frontview Mirror,” Business Finance, December 1999, pp. 24–30.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–33 Terms to Know environmental scanningenvironmental scanning competitor intelligencecompetitor intelligence forecastsforecasts quantitative forecastingquantitative forecasting qualitative forecastingqualitative forecasting benchmarkingbenchmarking resourcesresources budgetbudget schedulingscheduling Gantt chartGantt chart load chartload chart PERT networkPERT network eventsevents activitiesactivities slack timeslack time critical pathcritical path breakeven analysisbreakeven analysis linear programminglinear programming projectproject project managementproject management scenarioscenario
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–1 Planning Defined Defining the organizations objectives or goals Establishing an overall strategy.
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