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1. 2 Henry Tudor became King Henry VII of England and Wales after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in August 1485. This battle saw the.

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2 Henry Tudor became King Henry VII of England and Wales after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in August 1485. This battle saw the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 Henry Tudor became King Henry VII of England and Wales after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in August This battle saw the end of the Wars of the Roses. The Wars of the Roses had been a battle between two of England's most powerful families. The House of York and the House of Lancaster. The emblem of the House of York was a white rose. The emblem of the House of Lancaster was a red rose. To bring the two families closer together he married Elizabeth of York. He was the first Tudor King and reigned for 24 years until 1509.

3 3 Henry Vlll was born at Greenwich on 28 June 1491, the second son of Henry V11 and Elizabeth of York. Henry wanted a son to rule after him. He married six times. Henry broke away from the Catholic Church and became head of the Church of England. Henry had many hobbies from hunting to music and song writing. Henry built fine palaces, and fought wars against France and Scotland. Henry's main aim was to make sure that the Tudors would keep on ruling England after he died. He believed that only a boy could inherit his kingdom.

4 4 Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Ann of Cleaves Katherine Parr Catherine Howard A Spanish Princess who had been married to Henrys brother, Arthur. They had a daughter, Mary. Divorced She married Henry in They had a daughter, Elizabeth. Executed Married her a few days after Anne was executed in They had a boy who they named Edward. Jane died of blood poisoning Anne of Cleaves and Henry were married in 1540 to form a tie between England and Germany. After only six months Henry found it no longer to be to his advantage. Divorced Catherine Howard and Henry were married the same year in Executed Catherine Parr was Henry's sixth and last wife. She outlived Henry Survived "Divorced, beheaded, died. Divorced, beheaded, survived..."

5 5 The only son of Henry V111. He became King at the age of nine. He was known as The Boy King. His mother was Jane Seymore. Edward was never well and the country was run by his protectors, The Duke of Somerset and then the Duke of Northumberland. He enjoyed reading about battles and writing Greek. After his death, the Duke of Northumberland named Lady Jane Grey as the next Queen.

6 6 Lady Jane Grey was a great- granddaughter of Henry V11. She was regarded as one of the most learned women of the day. Lady Jane Grey was a Protestant. The Duke of Northumberland didnt want Mary, a Catholic, on the throne. Mary had a lot of support. She deposed Jane and had her arrested. Jane refused to become a Catholic and was executed. Mary became Queen.

7 7 Mary wanted to change England to a Catholic Country. She was the elder daughter of Henry V111 and Katherine of Aragon. Mary burned nearly 300 people at the stake because they refused to become Catholic. Mary made herself even more unpopular by marrying Philip of Spain. They had no children. Her younger sister became Queen after she died in 1558.

8 8 Elizabeth was the last Tudor Monarch. She was born at Greenwich on 7 September 1533, the younger daughter of Henry V111 and Ann Boleyn. She made England Protestant again and fought against Spain. The Tudor period ended with the death of Queen Elizabeth I on 24th March 1603 after 45 years on the throne. She had no husband or children to succeed her. Elizabeths rule is remembered as the Golden Age During Elizabeth's reign the age of exploration began with explorers such as Francis Drake claiming new lands for England and introducing new materials and foods.

9 The War of the Roses ends at the Battle of Bosworth. Henry Tudor is crowned Henry VII Reign of King Henry VII Christopher Columbus discovered the West Indies 1497 John Cabot, the English explorer, discovered Newfoundland. He left Bristol on his ship, the Matthew, looking for a sea route to Asia. He ended up in North America, the first European to reach there since the Vikings Christopher Columbus discovered Trinidad in the Caribbean Sea A plague epidemic killed thousands of people in London Henry VII died and his son Henry VIII succeeded to the throne 1513 Henry VIII invaded France and King James IV of Scotland is killed at the battle of Flodden Population of Britain 2.3 million. 6% of the population lived in towns. 3% in London 1528 Henry VIII sacks Cardinal Wolsey for failing to persuade the pope to grant him divorce Henry VIII forms the 'Church of England'. Henry is confirmed as 'Supreme Head of the Church of England 'following a parliamentary Act of Supremacy 1535 Act of Union makes Wales part of England 1535 The first Bible printed in English is placed in Churches Dissolution of the Monasteries (Destruction or closure of 560 monasteries and religious houses)

10 Population of Britain 2.7 million Mary, Queen of Scots lays claim to the English throne 1544 Henry VIII invades northern France 1545 The French attempt to invade England and the Mary Rose sinks in Portsmouth harbour The reign of King Edward Vl. Many new schools and colleges founded Reign of Queen Mary Tudor 1558 Elizabeth I begins her 45 year reign 1561 Mary, Queen of Scots returns to Scotland 1567 Mary Queen of Scots gives throne of Scotland to James 1569 Population of Britain 3.2 million Sir Francis Drake sets sail for his first voyage to the West Indies 1577 Drake becomes the second person to go round the world England and Spain at war 1587 Queen Elizabeth I executes Mary, Queen of Scots 1588 The Armada fleet of Philip II of Spain attempts to invade England, but is defeated 1591 First performance of a play by William Shakespeare 1600 First British involvement in the Indian continent - East India Company formed. Population of Britain just over 4 million. 10% of the population lived in towns Queen Elizabeth I died. King James of Scotland becomes the first Stuart king of England. End of Tudor Times

11 11 Life in the Towns Buildings Travel Punishment Schools Life for the Poor Games Mary Rose

12 12 Houses were timber framed of two or three storeys. To provide more space upstairs the upper storeys often projected over the lower storeys. This made the streets very dark and crowded. Most merchants and craftsmen lived and worked in the same building, the shop part of the building being open to the street. Towns also had many inns, a market hall, a grammar school and a guildhall. Some important buildings would be built of stone. A butchers shop in Bridge Street A Pub in Lads Lane

13 13 There was no proper drainage in Tudor Towns. Open sewers often ran down the middle of streets straight into rivers and wells. All waste was thrown onto the streets. Diseases spread very quickly.

14 14 Bridge Street, Newcastle-u-Lyme Most ordinary homes in Tudor times were half timbered. They had wooden frames and the spaces between were filled with small sticks and wet clay called wattle and daub. Daub is a mixture of clay, sand and dung that is smeared into and over the wattle to make the wall. The daub was often painted with lime to make it look white. The wooden timbers were coated with tar to stop them rotting. Many Tudor houses had thatched roofs Glass was expensive so windows were small.

15 15 The major land routes were based on the Roman roads. They were difficult to keep in good repair. Each parish or town was responsible for the upkeep of the roads. Some didnt do a good job. Many were rutted and uncomfortable to travel on. Without lighting they could be dangerous at night. Many people didnt travel at all.

16 16 Not many children went to school in Tudor times. Those that did go were mainly the sons of wealthy families. Girls were either kept at home by their parents to help with housework or sent out to work to bring money in for the family. Many Tudor towns and villages had a parish school where the local vicar taught boys to read and write. The boys practiced writing in ink by copying the alphabet and the Lord's Prayer. There were few books, so pupils read from hornbooks instead. It was usual for children to attend six days a week. Teachers were very strict, often beating their pupils with birches if they misbehaved.

17 17 The poor were divided into three groups. The first were called Helpless Poor. These would include the old, the sick, the disabled and children. The second group was called the Able Bodied Poor. These were people who could work but also wanted to work. The third group were known as Rogues and Vagabonds. These were people who could work but preferred to beg or steal.

18 18 People who committed crimes could be put in the stocks. They always stood where lots of people would pass and they would throw things at the criminals. Most towns had a ducking chair. The chair was kept near a pond or river and was hung on a see-saw. Other people could be burned at the stake. Beggars were a big problem because people were afraid of them. If they became a nuisance they were dragged through the streets being whipped.

19 19 The Tudor kings and queens encouraged archery. People played other games like ours. Bowls was a favourite and some towns had bowling alleys They used to play games like hockey the sticks were curved and the ball was wooden. The favourite game was football. Any number could play and there was no referee. Villages challenged each other and nearly every match ended with cracked heads and other injuries. Hunting, fishing, fencing and tennis were also played. The tudors also liked to go to bull and bear baiting rings.

20 20 Heading for action in 1545, Henry VIII's favourite warship sank in the Solent with up to 700 men on board. In 1528 and again in 1536 the Mary Rose was rebuilt, having her weight increased from 500 to 700 tons and mounting 91 guns. The refits are thought to have added an extra deck, making her top-heavy and liable to roll in heavy seas. In 1545, King Francis I of France launched an invasion of England As the Mary Rose advanced to battle she capsized and sank with the loss of all but 35 of her crew. It is theorized that her undisciplined crew had neglected to close the lower gunports after firing at the galleys, so that when she heeled in the breeze she filled with water and turned over.

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