What Is Stress? Stress is a "non-specific response of the body to any demand or challenge." Stress is anything that: Threatens us Prods us Scares us Worries us Thrills us
Stress is an inevitable aspect of life. We are under stress every day. Without it, we wouldn't move, think, get out of bed or care! Stress is caused by both positive and negative situations. The initial reaction when stressed (ALARM RESPONSE) is the same every time, whether the source of the stress (STRESSOR) is real, imagined, positive or negative.
Don’t stress it… Stress can be good (called 'eustress') when it helps us perform better, or it can be bad ('distress') when it causes upset or makes us sick. Check it out: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzrjEP5 MOT4
Did You Know? Stress is the cause of or contributes to most human illness. Stress can act as a motivator or trigger for underlying mental health problems. Some people also do their best work under stress. Stress is a challenge for everyone but the ways in which it affects behaviour are highly individualistic. Each of us has a great deal of freedom to decide exactly how much impact stressful events will have on our lives.
The most healthy, successful and accident free persons are those who manage stress. Persons who understand stress factors in others make the best bosses. People who feel alone in the world, who are uninvolved with other people and their community, run a higher risk of illness due to stress. Stress can be managed, and the healthiest among us manage it on a daily basis.
Stages of Stress Stage 1: The Initial Alarm Reaction…The "Fight or Flight" Response Stage 2: Intensification or Recovery Stage 3: Adaptation Stage 4: Exhaustion
Stage 1: Fight or Flight Response 1. The mind becomes aware of the stimulus through the sense or thoughts. 2. Within seconds, sometimes even before the stressor is identified, the brain's arousal system activates the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenalin and other stress hormones are released. Nervous stimulation and hormones act upon every part of the body to prepare it for physical action.
Stage 1: Fight or Flight Response 3. Mental alertness increases and sense organs become more sensitive, e.g. the pupils dilate to take in more details over a wider range of vision. 4. Pulse and respiration speed up and blood pressure increases to improve transport of glucose and oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the muscles and brain.
Stage 1: Fight or Flight Response 5. Sweating increases as body heat is moved from the core of the body to the skin. 6. Muscles tense up in preparation for exertion. 7. The liver releases more blood clotting factors in case of injury. 8. Blood sugar, fats and glycogen are mobilized for extra energy.
Stage 1: Fight or Flight Response 9. Stomach and kidney action stops and all blood is re-routed to organs of priority. 10. Hair may stand on end. In animals, this protective response makes the animal appear larger and more threatening to its attacker.
Stage 2: Intensification or Recovery The 'Fight or Flight' response takes a lot out of you. Luckily it doesn't last forever. You may realize almost immediately that the threat was not really a threat at all, or you may use the energy that your body has gathered for action to actually run, hit or lift a car off the person trapped underneath. Then the body reverts to a normal or even more relaxed state, and recovery takes place.
Stage 3 - Adaptation If the source of stress doesn't go away or is only slightly lessened, the body changes are retained. The level of stress begins to be viewed as 'normal' Physical Symptoms: heartburn, tense muscles, nervous sweat, headaches, stomach aches, diarrhea, skin problems, heart palpitations, frequent illness (weakened immune system), menstrual difficulties
Stage 3 - Adaptation Emotions: anxiety, irritability, crying, preoccupied, sleep disturbance Behavioural Signs: overeating, lack of appetite, increased use of caffeine or smoking, difficulty falling asleep, increase in anxiety-reducing habits (biting nails), stuttering, increased use of prescribed drugs (Tranquillizers)
Stage 4 - Exhaustion If stress continues unrelieved for a long period of time, serious health problems result. Physical Symptoms: high blood pressure, heart attack, ulcers, colitis, strokes, rheumatoid arthritis, exhaustion, migraine headaches, decrease in sex hormones
Stage 4 - Exhaustion Emotions: depression, suicidal tendencies, rage, hysteria Behavioural Signs: frequent serious accidents, loss of sexual desire, disordered eating
How To Deal With Stress? Maintain Mental Health… What are some strategies to deal with stress? Change lifestyle habits Change stressful situations Change your thinking Learn how to replace the alarm response with the relaxation response Get enough sleep (8-9 hours per night) https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=xmgNLrvW-94 https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=xmgNLrvW-94
Why is sleep important? What if you stopped sleeping? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nNhDkKAvx Fk&list=PL- ifGmEVhe6fJXSqOaKWPtQDP28zs6yDK&index=5
Sleep is important… Ever wonder how you can interpret some of the most common dreams? Each dream is a mixture of our biological instincts, our cultural assumptions and our own personal experience. As we dream, our brains create stories from these ingredients, sometimes to "replay" recent events, and at times voice concerns that our waking minds are not yet ready to face. REM Sleep is your body’s way of recovering and regenerating (8 hours of sleep a night is essential for teens) Interpret your dreams: http://health.howstuffworks.com/mental- health/sleep/dreams/interpreting-your-dreams.htm http://health.howstuffworks.com/mental- health/sleep/dreams/interpreting-your-dreams.htm
GOOD Mental Health Mental health is more than the absence of mental illness Good mental health is when everything feels like it is working well. Feel good about yourself, your relationships with other people and are able to meet the challenges/demands of life It is important to realize that mental health is a continuum. Your mental health may suffer when things in your life go wrong, and you have difficulty coping with everyday problems and changes
MENTAL ILLNESS Breaking the Stigma on Mental Illness WHAT IS THIS? How can this impact someone? CLIP: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=YEacp1aHq0U
Mental Illness A person is considered to have a mental illness when the changes in how a person perceives, thinks, and feels begins to interfere seriously with his or her daily life. Eg.They may be withdrawn from those who are close to them, feel disconnected and are unable to form new relationships
Mental illnesses are characterized by alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour associated with significant distress and impaired functioning. Examples of specific mental illnesses include: Mood disorders: major depression and bipolar disorder Schizophrenia Anxiety disorders Personality disorders Eating disorders Problem gambling
Internal and External Mental Health Factors Internal: genetic, hormonal, physical, neurological, physical fitness, interpersonal External: family influences (physical, sexual, emotional abuse), drug/alcohol abuse, dietary deprivation, environmental factors (crime, unemployment, role models), lack of available services and supports
POSSIBLE CAUSES? Possible causes of Mental Illnesses The causes of mental illness are linked to several factors which can be summarized into three main groups: 1) Biological factors which arise from physiology, biochemistry, genetic make-up and physical constitution 2) Psychological factors including the person's upbringing, emotional experiences and interactions with people (including substance abuse) 3) Social factors that are associated with the person's present life situation and socio-cultural influences
Mental Health Note Mood: The emotion of feeling sad, “blue”, down in the dumps, and unhappy are part of the normal range of emotions experienced by everyone. Mood disorders refer to biochemical imbalances, that cause persistent changes in a person’s mood, behaviour and feelings, for extended period of time, and which interferes with their everyday living Depression, Bi-Polar, Post Partum Depression
Mental Health Note Anxiety: ‘Anxiety’ is a common and normal emotion, experienced by when faced with a stressful situation. An Anxiety Disorder is when this anxious feeling persists, is combined with physiological symptoms, and interferes with normal everyday functioning. Generalized anxiety and panic, post traumatic stress, phobias, OCD
Mental Health Note Personality Disorders: PDs are an enduring pattern of inner experience and behaviour that deviates markedly from the individual’s culture is pervasive and inflexible, has on onset in adolescence or early adulthood Is stable over time Leads to distress or impairment Addiction, Antisocial personality, Munchausen Syndrome (by proxy)
Mental Health Note Psychosis: Psychotic disorders are thought disorders, characterized by a history of acute psychosis, and chronic deterioration of functioning, last for at least 6 months. They are thought to be caused by changes in brain chemistry, structure and/or genetics Affects thinking, perception, mood and behaviour These disorders often include; paranoia, hallucinations (both visual and aural) and delusions Schizophrenia, Major Depression, Post Partum (Psychopath/sociopath)
Mental Health Note Neurological: A neurological disorder is a disease or injury of the nervous system – which is the “communications network of the body” ADD, ADHD, Autism, Asperger’s
Mental health statistics for Ontario 1 in 5 Canadians will experience a mental illness in their lifetime. The remaining 4 will have a friend, family member or colleague who will. Schizophrenia affects 1%, major depression impacts 8% and anxiety disorder 12% of people.
70% of mental health problems and illnesses have their onset during childhood or adolescence. Only one-third of those who need mental health services in Canada actually receive them.
Famous people with mental illness Heath Ledger bipolar disorder “I had really good highs but some very low lows.”
Famous people with mental illness Christina Aguilera Bulimia is an eating disorder in which people binge, or uncontrollably consume large amounts of food, and then expel the food by vomiting or using laxatives because they don't want to gain weight.
Famous people with mental illness Christian Bale bipolar II disorder What's the difference between bipolar I and II? They possess many of the same characteristics -- the highs and lows -- but with bipolar II, the person never reaches full-on mania.
Famous people with mental illness Jim Carrey Depression
Famous people with mental illness Actress Audrey Hepburn struggled with anorexia and depression
Famous people with mental illness Princess Diana depression and eating disorders