2Child Discipline: parents use a variety of these methods. Overuse of any single method becomes less effective.This is known as habituation
3Child Discipline Corporal Punishment: Time-outs: using physical punishment such as spankingTime-outs:isolating a child for a relatively short amount of time. Time-out is not really intended to be a punishment. It is intended to give an over excited child time to calm down.
4Child Discipline Distraction: Reason: this method relies on the fact that young children have a very short attention span. If a child is participating in an undesirable manner, then the parent should offer an alternative such as reading a book, singing a song, etc. to distract them from the bad behavior.Reason:This method is not effective until around age 6. Around this time children are capable of understanding cause and effect. You can explain the bad consequences of an action to a child in order for them to understand not to do it.
5Child Discipline Consequences: Modeling: this method allows the natural order of consequences to be the learning lesson for the child. Ex. If a child eats all their Halloween candy at one time and gets a stomach ache…they will think before doing that again.Modeling:this method places the greatest amount of work/responsibility on the parent. The parent must CONSISTENTLY demonstrate to the child what is right and wrong.
6Child Discipline Praise & Reward: Scolding: giving the child positive attention (hugs, time with the child, etc.) When the child is not misbehaving.Scolding:should be done as “gentle scolding”. This teaches the child not to be afraid. Yelling at a child only causes them fear and avoidance of the parent. Gentle Scolding can be very effective.
7Child AbuseNeglect:when a parent fails to provide the basic needs of a child. This can be physical- lack of clothing, food, shelter, emotional- lack of love & support, or educational-lack of basic public education.
8Child Abuse Physical Abuse: physical aggression directed at a child by an adult. This can involve hitting, burning, chocking, or shaking a child. In some areas it can even include a pregnant mother who drinks while pregnant. (Alcohol fetal syndrome)
9Child Abuse Psychological/Emotional Abuse: can involve belittling or shaming a child, inappropriate or extreme punishment and the withholding of affection.
10Child Abuse Sexual Abuse: is any sexual act between an adult and a child, including penetration, fondling, exposure to adult sexuality and violations of privacy.
11Childhood EducationEarly Childhood Education: regards education in early childhood, which is the most vulnerable stages in a persons life.Social: Refers mostly to the ability to form attachments, play with others, co-operation and sharing, and being able to create lasting relationships with othersPhysical: Development of Fine (small) and Gross (large) Motor Skills.Intellectual: The process of making sense of the world around them.Creative: The development of special abilities creating talents. Music, Art, Writing, Reading, and Singing are all ways for creative development to take placeEmotional: Development of self-awareness, self-confidence, and coping with feelings as well as understanding them.Cognitive: Concerning how children think and react.
12Childhood Education Day Care: Babysitting: Family Child Care: is care of a child during the day by a person other than the child's parents or legal guardians, typically someone outside the child's immediate family.Babysitting:is the practice of temporarily caring for a child on behalf of the child's parents. Babysitting is most commonly performed as an odd job by teenagers for extra moneyFamily Child Care:Family child care providers care for children in the providers' own home. The children are in a mixed age group with a low adult to child ratio. Care can be more personalized and individual. The hours may be more flexible and the provider may offer evening and weekend care for mothers who work second or third shift.
13Childhood Education Pre-school Playgroup: Head Start: Montessori: Playgroups are less formal than nursery schools and do not provide full time care, operating for only a few hours a day during school term time, often in the mornings only. They are staffed by nursery nurses or volunteers, not by nursery teachers, and are run by private individuals or charities, rather than by the state or companies.Head Start:is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.Montessori:The Montessori method is characterized by an emphasis on self-directed activity on the part of the child and clinical observation on the part of the teacher (often called a director, directress, or guide). It stresses the importance of adapting the child's learning environment to his or her developmental level, and of the role of physical activity in absorbing abstract concepts and practical skills. It also characterized by the use of autodidactic (self-correcting) equipment for introduction and learning of various concepts.
14Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor Stage.This stage occurs between the ages of birth and two years of age. Sensorimotor (infancy): During this stage, which includes six distinct substages, intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity with limited use of symbols, including language; the infant’s knowledge of the world is primarily based on physical interactions and experiences.
15Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development Preoperational Stage.The second stage occurs between the ages of two to seven years of age. During this stage, intelligence is increasingly demonstrated through the use of symbols; memory and imagination are developed as language use matures; thinking is nonlogical, nonreversible, and egocentric.
16Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development Concrete Operations Stage.Occurring between ages 7 and about 12 years. During this stage—characterized by conservation of number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, volume—intelligence is increasingly demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols relating to concrete objects; thinking is operational, reversible, and less egocentric.
17Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development Formal Operations Stage.The final stage of cognitive development (from age 12 and beyond)During this final stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts; thinking is abstract, hypothetical, and early on, quite egocentric; it is commonly held that the majority of people never complete this stage.