Presentation on theme: "Co-existence and Confrontation: Eisenhower’s Cold War, 1953-61 Unit 5 The GeneralThe President."— Presentation transcript:
Co-existence and Confrontation: Eisenhower’s Cold War, Unit 5 The GeneralThe President
Dwight David Eisenhower A. Nicknamed “Ike” B. Born in Texas, grew up in Kansas C. Graduated from West Point class of 1915 D. Was a professional solider E. His talent for planning & organization gained him rapid promotion 1. In 1942 was appointed Commander of US Forces in Europe 2. He directed successful invasions of Africa (42’), Sicily (43’), & Italy (43’) 3. In 1943 he was named Supreme Allied Commander in Europe & oversaw the D-Day landings in F. After war he served as US Army Chief of Staff & then he was called by Truman to be the 1 st Supreme Commander of NATO G. The following year he won the Republican nomination & defeated (D) Adlai Stevenson for the 34 th President of US. H. He was re-elected in 1956, again comfortably defeating Stevenson I. The perception of Eisenhower: 1. A relaxed, hands off president content on leaving policy- making to his subordinates. More interested in bettering his golf swing.
J. Reality was different: 1. Eisenhower had a quick mind & liked to think for himself. 2. Relationship w/ his Secretary of State was a close partnership. a. Ike & Dulles were both fierce anti-communism. 3. Ike formulated the objectives of his foreign policy & was never as out of touch w/ the day-to-day of government as critics suggested. K. Ike’s time in office is seen as a time of relative stability in the Cold War Period. 1. US & USSR learned to co-exist but there were some times of high drama under Ike during the Cold War. a. US threatened to use A-Bomb on China 3 times b. a shooting down of a U-2 spy plane, etc…
I. Containment under Eisenhower: The New Look Key Issues: What methods were employed by Ike to circumscribe communism? What were the similarities & differences between Truman’s & Ike’s strategies of containment? A. Ike’s foreign policy was titled “New Look” 1. The objects of containment remained fixed 2. “Straitjacket theory” would cause self- destruction of communism. B. Many of Ike’s methods of containment were the same as Truman’s. 1. US continued to build a global web of anti- communist alliances 2. US military power also remained a important tool of containment. 3. Huge sums in aid continued to be sent to states resisting communist insurgency 4. Under Ike, no attempt was made by force to recover territory already in the hands of the communists.
C. Differences between Ike & Truman’s strategy of containment: 1. Most important was an increased reliance on nuclear weapons under Ike. a. This was the heart of the New Look b. In the event of war w/ the USSR, nuclear weapons were now to be regarded as a weapon of first & not last resort. “The Doctrine of massive retaliation.” c. Nuclear weapons could not only deter communist aggression but also further the goals of US diplomacy. (Brinkmanship) 2. The central place of nuclear weapons in the New Look presupposed a smaller role for conventional forces. a. In a sense, the New Look rejected the conclusion of NSC 68 which envisioned a build up of conventional & nuclear forces b. Ike believed US could not afford both c. rational of the New Look was to curb the cost of containing Soviet communism. “more bang for the buck”
3. Ike used covert operations much more then Truman. a. Sec. of State Dulles’ bro was head of the CIA which made the CIA & the executive much closer than had been under Truman. b. Ike’s presidency is seen as a milestone for the CIA. Both the scale & the frequency of CIA operations grew. Ike regarded undercover action as routine part of foreign policy. 4. Ike regarded negotiation both w/ the USSR & w/ the PRC as a legitimate part of the policy of containment. a. under Truman, negations would have been unthinkable.
II. Containment in Practice: The Global Cold War under Eisenhower Key Issue: How was communism contained in Europe? A. Europe 1. Europe formed a relatively stable theatre in the Cold War during Ike’s administration. a. Rebellions against commi rule in eastern Europe provided opportunities for US intervention & the loosening of the Soviet bloc. i after Stalin’s death, workers mounted anti-Soviet demonstrations in the streets of East Berlin ii. Hungary 1956, Imre Nagy was installed as premier & called for the immediate removal of Soviet troops from Hungary & the withdraw of Hungary from the Warsaw Pact along w/ free elections.
B. Russians made 2 attempts to change situation in their favor 1. Rapacki Plan (1958), proposed a phased reduction in conventional forces & nuclear free zone in central Europe encompassing East & West Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia. a. US rejected the plan b. removal of Nukes from W. Germany odds with the nuclear based theory of deterrence encompassed in the New Look c. Also, a nuke free W. Germany would be exposed to an invasion from the east by Warsaw Pact ground forces 2. At the end of 1958 Khrushchev demanded that the Western powers quit Berlin within 6 months a. The US refused b. Ike warned that a Soviet takeover of West Berlin ran the risk of massive retaliation
C. US had other difficulties in Europe not only w/ USSR but with its own partners in the Western alliance France changed their mind & rejected W. German rearmament as part of the EDC a. France wanted further safeguards to be imposed on W. German rearmament. i. US told France they would withdraw troops from w. Europe & leave the region vulnerable to Soviet armies. ii. US also said western part of continent might no longer enjoy the protection offered by US nukes. iii. Britain brokers a deal: W. Germany would be admitted to NATO subject to severe restrictions. Britain would maintain 4 divisions & a tactical air force on the continent as a security guard for the French. Germans not allowed to manufacture nukes, biological or chemical weapons (ABC). German armed forces could not exceed 500,000 & placed under the command of NATO. This is a very popular shirt in France
D. Asia Key Issue: What methods were employed by the US to contain comm. in Asia? 1. Korea a. Under Ike, Asia was more volatile arena in the Cold War than Europe. i. 1 st issue was ending the Korean conflict ii. Negotiations to end war was stuck on where to send N. Korean & CCP soldiers that didn’t want to return to their countries. They decided to send them to neutral countries. The sticking point; what neutral countries? iii. To speed up negotiations, Ike threatens to use nukes. 2. China, Taiwan, & the Offshore Islands a. The Quemoy & Matsu islands were the cause of 2 major crisis in Sino-American relations under Ike. b. The 2 Islands were garrisoned by Nationalist forces & seen by Jiang Jieshi as a platform for a military invasion of the mainland (China) i. Jiang announced a “holy war” against CCP
ii. He promised an imminent attack. iii. CCP in return threatened to invade Taiwan iv. The CCP bombarded the islands v. They then hit the Tachen islands c. The shelling of Quemoy & Matsu led to a mutual defense pact i. US promised to defend Taiwan against commi. invasion. At same time, invasion of the mainland must be approved by US. d. CCP seizure of Tachen Islands had 2 immediate consequences. i. 1 st Congress passed the Formosa Resolution ii. Ike announced that any move by the CCP against Taiwan would be met by the use of nukes iii. This caused an informal cease-fire in the Taiwan Straits
e. In 58’ the cease fire broke down & the Islands were bombarded again. i. The US & China were on the brink of war ii. 7 th Fleet ordered to the Straits & threat of nukes were made again iii. This again led to negotiations & cease-fire f. “Two Chinas” policy i. American opinion & Congress demanded a tough posture towards China ii. American opinion simply didn’t allow an accommodation w/ the regime in Beijing iii. US still tied to a “Two China” policy: denying diplomatic recognition to the CCP & ensuring that China’s place both in the UN General Assembly & on the UN Security Council was occupied not by the CCP but by Taiwan.
h. US pressure on the Chinese would confront the USSR w/ an awkward choice whether or not to support their ally i. USSR not supporting China would put a serious strain on their relationship ii. Other matters contributed to the strain already 1. ideological differences 2. mistrust created by Stalin’s breach of his promised to provide air cover for Chinese troops in N. Korea 3. Indochina a. US continued to invest heavy in Indochina b. Indochina held the key to south-east Asia. (domino theory) c. Indochina guarded the entrance to south-east Asia, which as a whole was vital to US interest.
d. In Vietnam, the US had sunk $4 billion in aid to France’s was against the Vietminh. e. critical phase: French chose Dien Bien Phu in N. Vietnam as a site for major battle. The French stationed themselves in a VALLEY!!!!! i. US considered intervention at this time. ii. Nukes were discussed but ruled out iii. US troops going in was considered under 2 conditions: 1. Congressional approval 2. Brit participation, “no more Koreas” iv. The French were starved for supplies & pounded w/ bombs so they surrendered. 1. this marked the end of the French empire in Indochina
4. French & Vietminh opened negotiations under the eyes of the US & China & concluded the Geneva Accords in a. Formally ended hostilities between France & Ho Chi b. temporarily ÷ Vietnam along 17 th parallel c. made provisions for national elections to unify country within 2 years. d. US did not sign Geneva Accords. 5. US’s response to the Accords was to build up S. Vietnam as a stable non-communist state capable of resisting communist incursion from the north. a. US wanted S. Vietnam to develop along lines of 2 nd S. Korea i. South-East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was established in September Modeled after NATO. Its purpose was to prevent commi interference in Laos, Cambodia, & S. Vietnam.
2.It was a pale imitation of NATO 3. 2 of regions major powers refused to join; India & Indonesia. 4. circumstances members would use military force against an aggressor in the region was also unclear. 6. In S. Vietnam the US removed the French Bao Dai & replaced him w/ Ngo Dinh Diem a. Some Americans doubted Diem’s credentials as a rallying point for non-communist nationalism. i. he had collaborated w/ the Japanese during the war & was a Roman Catholic. b. US also opened up a military mission in S. Vietnam designed to advise the Vietnamese on methods of resisting communist infiltration from the north.
7. 2 years later, Ike decided that S. Vietnam wouldn’t participate in the nationwide elections Geneva on grounds that Ho would have won the elections & overseen the creation of a united communist Vietnam. a. To the north, Ho consolidated his regime, while in the south small bands of communists (Vietcong) formed themselves into military units & began to conduct guerrilla warfare against Diem’s government. i. In 1960 they established the National Liberation Front (NLF). ii. Guerrilla warfare in the south was part of Ho’s longer-term project to unify the country. 8. Laos was also a source of concern in Washington. a. Pro-Western government of Loas was created w/ the assistance of the CIA i. There was evidence that Laos was being used as a conduit for supplies from North Vietnam to communist guerrillas in the South. b. By 1961 policy makers in Washington were more worried about the fate of Laos than about that of Vietnam.
III. The Developing World KEY ISSUE: How did America attempt to contain communism in new theatres of the Cold War in the developing world? A. The less developed countries became an important new theatre in the conflict between the US & the USSR. B. Dissolution of the old European empires created a host of new nation states & potential allies for the two superpowers. 1. Post Stalin Russian diplomacy was more flexible & innovative. a. Russian leaders enticed emerging nations w/ offers of substantial economic & military aid. 2. America proved generally successful in drawing newly independent nation states into its orbit. a. communism proved better placed to ride the tide of nationalism across those parts of the developing world which were still under colonial rule. C. The Middle East policy was to: 1. remain friendly with Arab states 2. minimize Soviet influence 3. maintain oil supplies to the West.
D. Projection of US influence in the Middle-East was not an easy matter. E. Anti-US feelings ran deep in the region for two principal reasons: 1. Nationalism had taken over the area & US was seen as a supporter of old colonial powers (Britain & France) 2. People were also angry that the US had sponsored the creation of the Jewish state of Israel in F. First attempt to contain communism in the Middle East occurred in Iran in The instrument of containment was the CIA in what was the 1 st major undercover operation of Eisenhower’s presidency. 2. In 51’ Shah of Iran appointed Mohammad Mossadeq as prime minister a. one of his first actions was to regain control of a national resource by nationalizing the Anglo- Iranian Oil Co.
b. Britain & the US then led a boycott of Iranian oil on the world market. c. Economic problems triggered by falling revenues from oil sales had dented his popularity & forced him into a closer partnership w/ the Tudeh in the Iranian parliament (Majlis). G. Operation Ajax: US had planned to overthrow Mossadeq. The Shah gave his approval. 1. Mossadeq dissolves the Mailis & turns to Moscow 2. US CIA gets involved & orchestrates fake communist demonstrations in the streets of Tehran (capital). It was aimed at arousing fears of a communist takeover. 3. CIA then mounted massive counterdemonstrations in favor of the Shah محمدرضا پهلوی 4. 9 hours of fighting later, Mossadeq quit office & the Shah returned to Iran.
H. In short term results were favorable for the US: 1. US oil companies acquired a stake in the distribution of Iranian oil. 2. Iran was now clearly aligned w/ the US 3. Iran was of great geopolitical importance 4. Shah & new Prime Minister now firmly Pro-American a. alliance was primed by large amounts of US economic & military aid. I. Baghdad Pact: designed to exclude Soviet influence in the Middle East. 1. It became CENTO (Central Treaty Organization) 2. British supported it because was a way of maintaining influence in the Middle East & their military bases in Iraq 3. US supported by did not join the pact 4. collection of friendly states on the southern flank of the USSR grouped together in a security pact under British/US auspices was part of the global strategy of containment
IV. Egypt was the scene of the greatest Cold War crisis in the Middle East under Ike. A. Egypt was lead by President Nasser 1. He was a reformer, a modernizer & above all a nationalist 2. His ambition was a pan-Arab coalition of states under the leadership of Egypt B. Construction of the Aswan Dam on the Nile was part of modernization 1. it would generate hydro-electric power & reclaim fertile cotton-growing land. 2. Nasser played the 2 superpowers of each other a. in 1955 Nasser received a shipment of arms form USSR b. In order to avert a pact between Egypt & the USSR the US offered to part-finance the Aswan Dam c. In 1956 Nasser recognizes the PRC so the US cancelled economic aid to Egypt. d. Nasser aimed to make up for the shortfall in revenue by nationalizing the British owned Suez Canal Company.
C. Nasser’s actions brought Anglo-Egyptian relations to the verge 1. France sided w/ Britain 2. US proposed a international agreement governing the canal a. both France & Britain were secretly preparing a military action w/ Israel to regain the Suez Canal Zone b. 1 st military action occurred when Israel invaded the Sinai desert c. Next the British bombed Egyptian airfields & dropped British & French paratroopers in the Suez Canal Zone 3. The USSR branded Britain, France, & Israel aggressors & threatened to intervene w/ military action a. The US sponsored a resolution in the UN calling for a cease fire b. Under intense pressure the British & friends pulled out c. the canal remained under Egypt’s control 4. Ike was made at the attempt to recover the Suez for several reasons: a. He was pissed they acted without US knowledge b. He calculated that US military intervention on the side of Israel would have destroyed efforts to win alliances in the Arab world
c. It would also invite the risk of Soviet military action & risk major conflict D. crisis had several important & long-lasting effects on US policy: 1. Soviet-Egyptian alliance emerged in the aftermath 2. Nasser being tight w/ USSR aroused fears about the penetration of Soviet powers into the Middle East 3. The Eisenhower Doctrine was US response in Jan a.. Congress passed a resolution granting Ike powers to send $ or military aid to any Middle Eastern state seeking assistance against “overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism.” 4. Nasser’s stock in the Arab world was high after Suez E. The Ike Doctrine was 1 st used in Jordan feared a coup by pro-Nasser forces within his country a. he appealed to the US for help b. the US moved the 6 th Fleet into the Mediterranean & sent $10 million in aid to Jordan
F. The next year saw military intervention in the Middle East when 10,000 marines landed on the beaches of Lebanon. 1. It was prompted by Nasser’s influence in the region. 2. A United Arab Republic (Egypt & Syria) had been formed & the Lebanese capital, Beirut, supporters of Nasser had been protesting against the countries President, Chamoun. 3. The pro-Western Hashemite monarchy in Iraq was tossed out in a left wing coup a. The landing is Lebanon could have caused a Cold War crisis 4. Russia limited its actions to diplomatic protests & the US marines left in October after the election of a new president 5. The US also recognized the new regime in Iraq G. US policy in the Middle East was not an unqualified success: 1. the interest of the US oil co. had been safeguarded & western access to oil reserves maintained. 2. Communism had made few advances in the region 3. The Baghdad Pact was a weak security organization
V. Central America and the Caribbean A. US viewed Latin America & Caribbean as “their” backyard B. It was a axiom of US policy for communist states to stay away from US borders 1. the 1 st post-war security treaty negotiated by the US was the Rio Pact of (“attack on 1 country in the Americas would bean attack on all”) C. In 1948 the Organization of American States (OAS) was formed as the political arm of the Rio Pact. 1. Its charter said that international communism was inconsistent w/ the “concept of American freedom.” D. In 1953 a potential commi threat was identified in Guatemala 1. The countries president, Arbenz Guzman was elected in Land reform was 1 of Arbenz’s priorities. a. In 1953 he seized unused land owned by the US United Fruit Company. b. Ike saw the seizure of US assets as the prelude to a commi reform program
Guatemala was a poor country in which 50% of the population lived off only 3% of the land. This is why a “land grab” was so important to Arbenz.
3. There was almost a hysterical anti-communism feeling w/ some American policy makers in this period: a. only a smattering of communists in the trade unions b. only four in the Guatemalan parliament c. Arbenz was not a communist, nor was he getting aid from Moscow. 4. Eisenhower still believed that there was sufficient evidence to authorize a CIA plan to overthrow him. a. CIA plan was called Operation PB Success. b. CIA supplied Armas w/ funds, mercenaries & a base in neighboring Honduras. 5. Arbenz now attempted to strengthen his position by purchasing a small amount of arms from the Soviet bloc, further proof to the US of his communist inclinations. 6. Armas invaded Guatemala w/ 150 men in June Ike agreed to supply him w/ two planes flown by US pilots
7. Armas had suffered only one casualty but had ordered the massacre of hundreds of political opponents during the coup a. Armas becomes president after Arbenz bails to Mexico 8. Again a covert CIA operation had deposed a foreign gov. suspected of links w/ the USSR & installed a pro US regime. a. An anti-communist military dictator served American interests better than a liberal reformer VI. Communism loomed even closer to home when in 1959 Fidel Castro assumed leadership of Cuba A. The US had controlled Cuba since the Spanish-American war of B. Cuba was tied closely to the US economically & politically C. Island was a playground for rich American tourists & most of Cuba’s assets were owned by American companies 1. In 1956 Castro landed on the beaches in an attempt to overthrow Batista. 2. By 1959 Castro was triumphant
D. Castro quickly initiated a program of land redistribution 1. The US concluded that Castro’s revolution was not an outright communist. 2. When Castro confiscated US assets on Cuba & recognized communist China, it aroused US fears he might become Moscow’s newest ally in the developing world. a. Castro also signed trade agreements w/ the USSR b. Traditionally the US had bought Cuba’s sugar crop but the USSR now opened its market to Cuban sugar in return for exporting oil & manufactured goods to Cuba. i. Ike responded w/ embargo of Cuban sugar imports ii. Ike also instructed the CIA to train Cuban exiles in Guatemala for an invasion of the island c. Castro continued to seize US assets in Cuba i. The US now blocked all trade w/ Cuba except for a few essential items. ii. In January 1961 the 2 countries broke off diplomatic relations
VII. US-Soviet Relations under Eisenhower KEY ISSUE: How & why were US-Soviet relations volatile during Ike’s presidency? A. Stalin’s death & Ike’s arrival produced new Cold War leaders B. Changing leaders did not bring about complete policy change 1. Ike & Dulles were “hardcore” anti-communism just like their generation. C. Both men found it hard to envision the USSR as a partner in constructive negotiations 1. Events on the ground also made diplomatic breakthrough unlikely. a. US & Chinese killing each other in Korea until Ike had to keep his eye on Congress too. a. McCarthy & his supporters were still riding high D. the collective leadership that succeeded Stalin also made diplomacy difficult. 1. Khrushchev & Malenkov were engaged in a power struggle
E. There were signs of a more conciliatory approach to Cold War problems on the part of the USSR. 1. USSR put pressure on Kim Il Sung to agree to an armistice in Korea in They persuaded Ho Chi Geneva Conference to end war w/ France & accept the partition of Vietnam as the price of peace 3. In 1955 the USSR recognized W. Germany & abolished the Cominform 4. Khrushchev suggested that relations between US/USSR should be a “peaceful co-existence.”