4Movement Cyclic Movement – movement away from home for a short period… CommutingSeasonal movementNomadismPeriodic Movement – movement away from home for a longer period.Migrant laborTranshumanceMilitary serviceBoth involve returning home.What are their activity spaces?Who has the largest activity space?
5MigrationMigration –A change in residence that is intended to be permanent.Individual vs. Household…Little Haiti, Miami, Florida
6International Migration – Movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence). Emigrate vs. Immigrate
7Internal Migration -Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a degree of permanence).
8Common Flows of Americans Black in America South to Northern cities… Now returning to the South.Americans moving to Sunbelt and Far WestMost Place migration is rural to urbanMost migrants in poor places move short distanceIndividuals move farther and easier than familiesAll Migrations have a counter migrationMen are more mobile than women (more employment opportunities for men & earn more)
9Choose one type of cyclic or periodic movement and then think of a specific example of the kind of movement changes both the home and the destination. How do these places change as a result of this cyclic or periodic movement?
11Why do People Migrate?Forced Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate… Causes?Forces = Safety, environmental, starvation, & warfareBig ones in HistoryJews out of Israel, African Slave trade, Trail of Tears, Vietnamese boat people, Irish Potato Famine
13Environmental Conditions – In Montserrat, a 1995 volcano made the southern half of the island, including the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who remained migrated to the north or to the U.S.
14Why do People Migrate?Voluntary Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers respond to perceived opportunity, not force.Jobs, FreedomMigrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go.
15Types of Push and Pull Factors Economic ConditionsPolitical CircumstancesArmed Conflict and Civil WarEnvironmental ConditionsCulture and TraditionsTechnological Advances
16Economic Conditions –Migrants will often risk their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will enable them to send money home (remittances) to their family members who remain behind.
17Kinds of Voluntary Migration Step Migration –When a migrant follows a path of a series of stages, or steps toward a final destination.* intervening opportunity –at one of the steps alongthe path, pull factors encourage the migrant to settlethere.Chain Migration –When a migrant communicates to family and friends at home, encouraging further migration along the same path, along kinship links.
18Voluntary Migration –Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go.Distance Decay weighs into the decision to migrate, leading many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplate.
19Gravity Model Ernst Ravenstien Since larger places attract people, ideas, and commodities more than smaller places and places closer together have a greater attraction, the gravity model incorporates these two features.The relative strength of a bond between two places is determined by multiplying the population of city A by the population of city B and then dividing the product by the distance between the two cities squared.
20Gravity Model Ernst Ravenstien Gravity Model EquationPopulation 1 X Population 2Distance Squared
22Think about a migration flow within your family, whether internal, international, voluntary, or forced. The flow can be one you experienced or one you only heard about through family. List the push and pull factors. Then, write a letter in the first person (if you were not involved, pretend you were your grandmother or whomever) to another family member at “home” describing how you came to migrate to your destination.
23Where do People Migrate? Key Question:Where do People Migrate?
24Global Migration Flows Between 1500 and 1950, major global migration flows were influenced largely by:ExplorationColonizationThe Atlantic Slave TradeImpacts the place the migrants leave and where the migrants go.
26Regional Migration Flows Migrants go to neighboring countries:- for short term economic opportunities.(Remittance)- to reconnect with cultural groupsacross borders.- to flee political conflict or war.
27Economic Opportunities Islands of Development –Places within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated.Why is it so expensive to start businesses in Africa?
28Economic Opportunities In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance.Huge Chinese Minorities inSE Asia: Thai. 14%, Malay. 32%, Sing. 76%
29Reconnecting Cultural Groups About 700,000 Jews migrated to then-Palestine between 1900 and 1948.After 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine), 600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of newly-designated Israeli territories.Balfour Declaration, 1917
30Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the West Bank.
31National Migration Flows Also known as internal migration- eg. US, Russia, MexicoWhy is the center of the US population moving W & S?
32Guest WorkersGuest workers – migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides.- have short term work visas- send remittances to home country
33RefugeesA person who flees across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.
34Subsaharan Africa (Rwanda) Regions of Dislocation – (DP’s) What regions generate the most refugees?Subsaharan Africa (Rwanda)North Africa and Southwest Asia (Sudan & Somalia, Afghanistan))South Asia (India, Sri Lanka)Southeast Asia (Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam)Europe (Yugoslav Republics)What are the characteristics of a Refugee?
35The Sudan –Fighting in the Darfur region of the Sudan has generated thousands of refugees. In eastern Chad, the Iridimi refugee camp is home to almost 15,000 refugees from the Darfur province, including the women in this photo.
36Imagine you are from an extremely poor country, and you earn less than $1 a day. Choose a country to be from, and look for it on a map. Assume you are a voluntary migrant. You look at your access to transportation and the opportunities you have to go elsewhere. Be realistic, and describe how you determine where you will go, how you get there, and what you do once you get there.
37How do Governments Affect Migration? Key Question:How do Governments Affect Migration?
38Governments Place Legal Restrictions on Migration Immigration laws – laws that restrict or allow migration of certain groups into a country.Quotas limit the number of migrants from each region into a country.A country uses selective immigration to bar people with certain backgrounds from entering.Why do countries chooses to limit immigration?
39Waves of ImmigrationSwitch from Europe to Lat AM., Asia & AfricaPotato FaminePost WWII IsolationismPort. Sp. It.Rus. & PolScanIre, Ger.,& GBGreat DepressionChanging immigration laws, and changing push and pull factors create waves of immigration.
41One goal of international organizations involved in aiding refugees is repatriation – return of the refugees to their home countries once the threat against them has passed. Take the example of Sudanese refugees. Think about how their land and their lives have changed since they became refugees. You are assigned the daunting task of repatriating Sudanese from Uganda once a peace solution is reached. What steps would you have to take to re-discover a home for these refugees?