Presentation on theme: "Migration Chapter 3. Stories from the Intro Boat People –Where? Why? Results? “Wet Foot - Dry Foot” Remittance: –What is it? How Much? Legal vs. Illegal."— Presentation transcript:
Movement Cyclic Movement – movement away from home for a short period… –Commuting –Seasonal movement –Nomadism Periodic Movement – movement away from home for a longer period. –Migrant labor –Transhumance –Military service Both involve returning home. What are their activity spaces? Who has the largest activity space?
Migration Migration – A change in residence that is intended to be permanent. Individual vs. Household… Little Haiti, Miami, Florida
International Migration – Movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence). Emigrate vs. Immigrate
Internal Migration - Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a degree of permanence).
Common Flows of Americans 1900-1980 Black in America South to Northern cities… Now returning to the South. Americans moving to Sunbelt and Far West Most Place migration is rural to urban Most migrants in poor places move short distance Individuals move farther and easier than families All Migrations have a counter migration Men are more mobile than women (more employment opportunities for men & earn more)
Choose one type of cyclic or periodic movement and then think of a specific example of the kind of movement changes both the home and the destination. How do these places change as a result of this cyclic or periodic movement?
Why do People Migrate? Forced Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate… Causes? –Forces = Safety, environmental, starvation, & warfare Big ones in History –Jews out of Israel, African Slave trade, Trail of Tears, Vietnamese boat people, Irish Potato Famine
Environmental Conditions – In Montserrat, a 1995 volcano made the southern half of the island, including the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who remained migrated to the north or to the U.S.
Why do People Migrate? Voluntary Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers respond to perceived opportunity, not force. –Jobs, Freedom Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go.
Types of Push and Pull Factors Economic Conditions Political Circumstances Armed Conflict and Civil War Environmental Conditions Culture and Traditions Technological Advances
Economic Conditions – Migrants will often risk their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will enable them to send money home (remittances) to their family members who remain behind.
Kinds of Voluntary Migration Step Migration – When a migrant follows a path of a series of stages, or steps toward a final destination. * intervening opportunity –at one of the steps along the path, pull factors encourage the migrant to settle there. Chain Migration – When a migrant communicates to family and friends at home, encouraging further migration along the same path, along kinship links.
Distance Decay weighs into the decision to migrate, leading many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplate. Voluntary Migration – Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go.
Gravity Model Ernst Ravenstien Since larger places attract people, ideas, and commodities more than smaller places and places closer together have a greater attraction, the gravity model incorporates these two features. The relative strength of a bond between two places is determined by multiplying the population of city A by the population of city B and then dividing the product by the distance between the two cities squared.
Gravity Model Ernst Ravenstien Gravity Model Equation Population 1 X Population 2 Distance Squared
Think about a migration flow within your family, whether internal, international, voluntary, or forced. The flow can be one you experienced or one you only heard about through family. List the push and pull factors. Then, write a letter in the first person (if you were not involved, pretend you were your grandmother or whomever) to another family member at “home” describing how you came to migrate to your destination.
Global Migration Flows Between 1500 and 1950, major global migration flows were influenced largely by: –Exploration –Colonization –The Atlantic Slave Trade Impacts the place the migrants leave and where the migrants go.
Regional Migration Flows Migrants go to neighboring countries: - for short term economic opportunities. (Remittance) - to reconnect with cultural groups across borders. - to flee political conflict or war.
Economic Opportunities Islands of Development – Places within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated. Why is it so expensive to start businesses in Africa?
Economic Opportunities In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance. Huge Chinese Minorities in SE Asia: Thai. 14%, Malay. 32%, Sing. 76%
Reconnecting Cultural Groups About 700,000 Jews migrated to then-Palestine between 1900 and 1948. After 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine), 600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of newly-designated Israeli territories. Balfour Declaration, 1917
Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the West Bank.
National Migration Flows Also known as internal migration - eg. US, Russia, Mexico Why is the center of the US population moving W & S?
Guest Workers Guest workers – migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides. - have short term work visas - send remittances to home country
Refugees A person who flees across an international boundary because of a well- founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.
Subsaharan Africa (Rwanda) North Africa and Southwest Asia (Sudan & Somalia, Afghanistan)) South Asia (India, Sri Lanka) Southeast Asia (Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam) Europe (Yugoslav Republics) Regions of Dislocation – (DP’s) What regions generate the most refugees? What are the characteristics of a Refugee?
The Sudan – Fighting in the Darfur region of the Sudan has generated thousands of refugees. In eastern Chad, the Iridimi refugee camp is home to almost 15,000 refugees from the Darfur province, including the women in this photo.
Imagine you are from an extremely poor country, and you earn less than $1 a day. Choose a country to be from, and look for it on a map. Assume you are a voluntary migrant. You look at your access to transportation and the opportunities you have to go elsewhere. Be realistic, and describe how you determine where you will go, how you get there, and what you do once you get there.
How do Governments Affect Migration? Key Question:
Governments Place Legal Restrictions on Migration Immigration laws – laws that restrict or allow migration of certain groups into a country. –Quotas limit the number of migrants from each region into a country. –A country uses selective immigration to bar people with certain backgrounds from entering. Why do countries chooses to limit immigration?
Waves of Immigration Changing immigration laws, and changing push and pull factors create waves of immigration. 1800- 1850 Scan Ire, Ger., & GB 1850-1900 Port. Sp. It. Rus. & Pol Great Depression Post WWII Isolationism Switch from Europe to Lat AM., Asia & Africa Potato Famine
One goal of international organizations involved in aiding refugees is repatriation – return of the refugees to their home countries once the threat against them has passed. Take the example of Sudanese refugees. Think about how their land and their lives have changed since they became refugees. You are assigned the daunting task of repatriating Sudanese from Uganda once a peace solution is reached. What steps would you have to take to re-discover a home for these refugees?