Presentation on theme: "Migration AP Human Geography. Migration Migration: a change in residence that is intended to be permanent. Emigration: leaving a country. Immigration:"— Presentation transcript:
Migration AP Human Geography
Migration Migration: a change in residence that is intended to be permanent. Emigration: leaving a country. Immigration: entering a country. Little Haiti, Miami, Florida
Types of Migration Forced Migration: migrants have no choice – they must leave. Periodic Movement: short term (weeks or months) seasonal migration to college, winter in the South, etc. Commuter train in Soweto, South Africa
Types of Migration Cyclic movement: daily movement to work, shopping. Transhumance: seasonal pastoral farming- Switzerland, Horn of Africa. Nomadism: cyclical, yet irregular migration that follows the growth of vegetation.
From 12 to 30 million Africans were forced from their homelands in the 18 th century. It took generations to restore the population balance.
Catalysts of Migration Push-Pull Factors –Push factors induce people to leave –Pull factors encourage people to move to an area
Catalysts of Migration Economic conditions –poverty and a desire for opportunity –has driven millions from their homelands –North America has received many legal and illegal immigrants from Mediterranean, Caribbean, across the Rio Grande Political conditions –persecution, expulsion, or war –oppressive regimes- Mariel Boatlift from Cuba 125,000, Boat People from Vietnam in 1970s and 80s Armed Conflict-War –Rwanda-militant Hutus versus minority Tutsi and moderate Hutus-600,000 died in out migration-2 million fled to Zaire
Economic Conditions – Migrants will often risk their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will enable them to send money home (remittances) to their family members who remain behind.
Most illegal immigrants are Mexicans, but a growing number Are from Central and South America, like the men waiting Outside of “Bar Honduras” in Nuevo Laredo.
A massive dump site in Arizona’s Upper Altar Valley. After walking 40 miles through the desert, illegal immigrants are met here by coyotes. They are told to dump their old clothes & packs and put on more “American” looking clothes the coyotes have brought. They then begin the trip to an urban stash house.
Environmental Conditions –In Montserrat, a 1995 volcano made the southern half of the island, including the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who remained migrated to the north or to the U.S.
Catalysts of Migration Culture and tradition –threatened by change –Millions fled India for Pakistan, Soviet Jews fled to Israel Technological advances –easier and cheaper to sail or fly –air-conditioning made south and southwest US more desirable.
Reconnecting Cultural Groups About 700,000 Jews migrated to then- Palestine between 1900 and After 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine), 600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of newly-designated Israeli territories.
Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the West Bank.
Pull Factors Same as push factors, but positively Ex: United States –Plenty of economic opportunity –Politically free –Temperate climate –Melting pot of culture –Technologically advanced
Economic Opportunities Islands of Development – Places within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated.
Economic Opportunities In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance.
Distance Decay weighs into the decision to migrate, leading many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplate. Voluntary Migration – Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go.
Refugees A person who flees across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.
Characteristics of Refugees Move with only what they can carry or easily transport. Most move first on foot, bicycle, wagon or open boat-very low tech. transport. Most have no official documentation such as passports, identification or other official papers.
Ernst Ravenstein’s “Laws of migration” 1885 he studied the migration of England Most migrants go only a short distance. Big cities attract long distance migrants. Most migration is step-by-step. Most migration is rural to urban Each migration flow produces a counterflow. Most migrants are adults-families are less likely to make international moves. Most international migrants are young males.
Continued… Today in the US young people in their 20s are the most mobile. Today 40-60% of migrants are women and girls so the young males rule is less valid today than it was
Migrants face obstacles Quota Laws-limit the number of immigrants from a particular country –Today: 480,000 family-sponsored immigrants plus 140,000 employment-related immigrants –Brain Drain: preference is given to educated immigrants thus causing a lack in their home countries
Guest Workers or Time-Contract Workers Guest workers – migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides. - have short term work visas - send remittances to home country
Examples Only recently has Germany allowed the Turks-now 2 nd or 3 rd generation-to become German citizens Nigeria kicked out its guest workers Indonesia pulled out its many citizens in the Middle East before the 2003 Iraq War
Cultural Problems U.S. attitudes toward immigrants
Article Questions Describe the Tuareg culture. Why do the Tuareg continuously migrate? Why has the country of Mali pushed the Tuareg out? How has climate affected migration? What political migration issues do the Tuareg now face?