5Populations are falling in some parts of the world. How will Figure 2 Populations are falling in some parts of the world. How will Figure 2.5 look different 50 years from now? If you were updating this textbook in 50 years, where would the largest population clusters in the world be?
6Why do Populations Rise or Fall in Particular Places?
7A Population Bomb?Malthus (early 1800s) worried about population growing exponentially and resources growing linearly.Ehrlich (1960s) warned of a population bomb because the world’s population was outpacing food production.
9World Population Growth – Rate of natural increase (does not take into account immigration and emigration).
10Today, the pace of world population growth is slowing Today, the pace of world population growth is slowing. Where have Total Fertility Rates (TFRs) fallen below replacement level and why?
11Population Growth in India Significant demographic variations occur within countries.In India, growth rates are higher in the east and northeast.
12Why do Growth Rates Vary in India? 1960s population planning program1970s country began forced sterilization program for men with 3 or more children.22.5 million men were sterilized.2004 state of Uttar Pradesh began guns for sterilization program.Today, most states use advertising and persuasion to lower birth rates.
13Maharashtra, India. A sign reads “free family planning sterlization operation” closed in 1996.
14The Demographic Transition in Great Britain Studied the change in birth rates, death rates, and natural growth rates over the course of British industrialization.Found a transition occurred when death rates decline and then birth rates decline, resulting in a low or sustained growth rate.
15World Birth Rate –number of births in a year per 1,000 people.
16World Mortality Rate –number of deaths in a year per 1,000 people.
20Population Composition Population Composition is concerned with:Gender distributionAge distributionwithin a country, region, or place.
21Population Pyramids –Charts that show the percentages of each age group in the total population, divided by gender.For poorer countries, the chart is shaped like a pyramid. Infant mortality rates are high, life expectancy is shorter.
22In poorer countries, Infant Mortality Rates are usually high, which is reflected in the pyramid shape.
23In poorer countries, Life Expectancy is usually shorter, which is also reflected in the pyramid shape.
24Affect of AIDS on population pyramid for South Africa. Predicted population for 2035, without and with AIDS.With AIDS, looks like a population “chimney.”
26AIDS is creating large numbers of AIDS care-givers. Drawing by a Pokot boy in Kenya, the drawing shows him working in the fields and taking care of his family cattle in order to assist his sick family members.
27Population Pyramids –Charts that show the percentages of each age group in the total population, divided by gender.For wealthier countries, the chart is shaped like a lopsided vase. Population is aging, TFRs are declining.
28Age Structure of a Population The populations of many countries are aging.- eg. Europe- eg. JapanBordeaux, FrancePhoto credit: H.J. de Blij
29Aging Populations To replace the population, TFR must be 2.1. - TFR in Bologna, Italy is 0.8- Why are women having fewer children?What are the impacts of an aging population on a country?What are the “solutions” to an aging population?
30Longer Life Expectancies typically mean higher rates of chronic diseases.
31In the United States, the national infant mortality rate (IMR) is 7 In the United States, the national infant mortality rate (IMR) is 7.0. That number represents an average for the country. Think about the differences in IMR in the United States across regions, ethnicities, social classes, and other sectors.
33Government Population Policies Expansive Population Policies- Encourages population growth.Eugenic Population Policies- Favors one racial or cultural sector over others.Restrictive Population Policies- range from toleration of unapproved birth control to outright prohibition of large families.
34China’s One Child Policy What are some of the limitations, unintended consequences, and contradictions found in government policies toward population growth?
35When studying government policies on population, one of the most important things to remember is unintended consequences. Choose one country in the world where women have little access to education and are disempowered. Consider the previous section of the chapter on age composition, and determine how restrictive population policies in this country will alter the population composition of the country.
38Movement Cyclic Movement – movement away from home for a short period. CommutingSeasonal movementNomadismPeriodic Movement – movement away from home for a longer period.Migrant laborTranshumanceMilitary service
39MigrationMigration –A change in residence that is intended to be permanent.Little Haiti, Miami, Florida
40International Migration – Movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence).
41Internal Migration -Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a degree of permanence).
43Why do People Migrate?Forced Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.Voluntary Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers respond to perceived opportunity, not force.
45Voluntary Migration –Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go.Distance Decay weighs into the decision to migrate, leading many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplate.
46Kinds of Voluntary Migration Step Migration –When a migrant follows a path of a series of stages, or steps toward a final destination.* intervening opportunity –at one of the steps alongthe path, pull factors encourage the migrant to settlethere.Chain Migration –When a migrant communicates to family and friends at home, encouraging further migration along the same path, along kinship links.
47Types of Push and Pull Factors Economic ConditionsPolitical CircumstancesArmed Conflict and Civil WarEnvironmental ConditionsCulture and TraditionsTechnological Advances
48Economic Conditions –Migrants will often risk their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will enable them to send money home (remittances) to their family members who remain behind.
49Environmental Conditions – In Montserrat, a 1995 volcano made the southern half of the island, including the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who remained migrated to the north or to the U.S.
50Think about a migration flow within your family, whether internal, international, voluntary, or forced. The flow can be one you experienced or one you only heard about through family. List the push and pull factors. Then, write a letter in the first person (if you were not involved, pretend you were your grandmother or whomever) to another family member at “home” describing how you came to migrate to your destination.
52Global Migration Flows Between 1500 and 1950, major global migration flows were influenced largely by:ExplorationColonizationThe Atlantic Slave TradeImpacts the place the migrants leave and where the migrants go.
54Regional Migration Flows Migrants go to neighboring countries:- for short term economic opportunities.- to reconnect with cultural groupsacross borders.- to flee political conflict or war.
55Economic Opportunities Islands of Development –Places within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated.
56Economic Opportunities In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance.
57Reconnecting Cultural Groups About 700,000 Jews migrated to then-Palestine between 1900 and 1948.After 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine), 600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of newly-designated Israeli territories.
58Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the West Bank.
59National Migration Flows Also known as internal migration- eg. US, Russia, Mexico
60Guest WorkersGuest workers – migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides.- have short term work visas- send remittances to home country
61RefugeesA person who flees across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.
62Regions of Dislocation – What regions generate the most refugees? Subsaharan AfricaNorth Africa and Southwest AsiaSouth AsiaSoutheast AsiaEurope
63The Sudan –Fighting in the Darfur region of the Sudan has generated thousands of refugees. In eastern Chad, the Iridimi refugee camp is home to almost 15,000 refugees from the Darfur province, including the women in this photo.
64Imagine you are from an extremely poor country, and you earn less than $1 a day. Choose a country to be from, and look for it on a map. Assume you are a voluntary migrant. You look at your access to transportation and the opportunities you have to go elsewhere. Be realistic, and describe how you determine where you will go, how you get there, and what you do once you get there.
66Governments Place Legal Restrictions on Migration Immigration laws – laws that restrict or allow migration of certain groups into a country.Quotas limit the number of migrants from each region into a country.A country uses selective immigration to bar people with certain backgrounds from entering.
67Waves of ImmigrationChanging immigration laws, and changing push and pull factors create waves of immigration.