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Canada and the 5 Themes of Geography: A Study Guide Our neighbor to the north (for most Americans)…and east (for Detroiters)…and west (for Maine)…and.

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Presentation on theme: "Canada and the 5 Themes of Geography: A Study Guide Our neighbor to the north (for most Americans)…and east (for Detroiters)…and west (for Maine)…and."— Presentation transcript:


2 Canada and the 5 Themes of Geography: A Study Guide Our neighbor to the north (for most Americans)…and east (for Detroiters)…and west (for Maine)…and south (for Alaska)…

3 The 5 Themes of Geography Location where places are Place characteristics of places and the people who live there Human/Environment Interaction relationships between people and their environments Movement movement of material, people, or ideas among places Regions areas sharing several characteristics

4 Geographers want to know Where is it? »Absolute Location (the address) »Relative Location (where is it in relation to other places?) Location Why is it located there?

5 Absolute Location and Canada Does Canada have an ‘address’? Cities and towns in Canada do! Each place in Canada has an address. Geographers identify these addresses using: Latitude AND Longitude

6 Windsor, Ontario, Canada’s address is: 42° 16' N Latitude 82° 58' W Longitude Using latitude and longitude, we can identify the absolute location of any place on the globe!

7 Relative Location and Canada Canada is west of ____________. Canada is east of ____________. Canada is south of ____________. Canada is north of ____________. These statements are examples of Canada’s relative location!

8 More examples of relative location Canada is just a short drive from Detroit. Vancouver, Canada is southeast of Alaska. Canada is northeast of Hawaii. Much of Canada is south of Alaska. Canada is north of most areas of the United States, but not all! Toronto is southwest of Maine. Can you think of another example?

9 PLACE What is it like?

10 EXAMINING PLACE Physical (natural) Characteristics What are Canada’s major landforms? What are Canada’s major bodies of water? What types of plants and animals can be found in Canada? Describe Canada’s climate. Describe Canada’s soil. Does Canada have any minerals?

11 EXAMINING PLACE Human Characteristics How large is Canada’s population? What cultural characteristics are found in the people of Canada? How does Canada use its land? What roads could you find in Canada? What buildings could you find in Canada? What are Canada’s major economic activities?

12 HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION How do people interact with and change their environments?

13 Human Use people depend on the environment and its resources What resources do Canadians use? It’s a big country… Let’s try this…

14 Using the Resources of Canada mininganimals fish minerals THE TERRITORIES Yukon Territory Nunavut Northwest Territories forest industry lumber processing processing lumber shipping paper manufacturing hydroelectric power trees lakes rivers British Columbia farming ranching mining oil production fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) fertile soil trees cattle PRAIRIE PROVINCES Alberta Manitoba Saskatchewan St. Lawrence Seaway Great Lakes (4 of 5) minerals manufacturing shipping steel tourism Ontario Quebec fishing industry farming mining shipping tourism fish Atlantic Ocean minerals land ATLANTIC (MARITIME) PROVINCES Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island New Brunswick Newfoundland and Labrador How are these resources used?Examples of important resources Provinces and Territories

15 Human Adaptation people change in response to different environments How have Canadians adapted to their varied environments? It’s a big country… Let’s try this…

16 See if you can complete these sentences… Most Canadians live within 100 miles of Canada’s southern border because __________________________________. The shelters in northern Canada are different from the ones in southern Canada because _______________________________________________. The reason farming is a major industry in the Prairie Provinces is _____________________________________. The reason few farmers live in the Canadian Shield is _______________________________________________. The St. Lawrence Lowlands region is the home of many major industries because ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________. Canada’s northern climate is too severe for most Canadians. Canadians build shelters based on the environment and climate. the Prairie Provinces have very fertile soil so farming is profitable. there is very little soil for farming in the Canadian Shield. The St. Lawrence Seaway provides a major shipping route making it profitable for many industries to locate there.

17 Human Impact people change the environment How have Canadians changed their environment? It’s a big country… Let’s try this…

18 The St. Lawrence Seaway The Mining Industry The Timber Industry The Agriculture Industry Explain how each of the following has changed Canada’s environment. The seaway added canals and locks to bypass the narrow and shallow parts of the St. Lawrence River. The land has been altered as minerals and fossil fuels have been removed from the ground. Forests have been cleared for timber. Roads have been built to transport the timber for processing. Land has been plowed and vegetation removed to make way for crops. Farming communities have used other lands previously empty.

19 MOVEMENT Movement of Material Movement of People and Other Living Things Movement of Ideas and Information

20 Transportation by nature Transportation by people Movement of Materials

21 MIGRATION movement of PEOPLE and other LIVING THINGS Movement of People Movement of Other Living Things

22 Movement of Ideas Movement of Information DIFFUSION movement of IDEAS and INFORMATION

23 Which type(s) of movement? Can you tell the difference? Be prepared to explain your answers. (Note: There could be more than one correct answer!) EXAMPLEMOVEMENT OF MATERIAL MIGRATION (people and other living things) DIFFUSION (ideas and information) French is spoken by almost all of Montreal’s citizens. British Columbia’s ports link Canada to its Asian trading partners. Canada’s earliest people came from Asia. Separatists want Quebec to become an independent country. The Canadian government is modeled on the British government.

24 REGIONS How can we generalize about areas of the world? Which places share similar characteristics or processes?

25 Types of Regions Natural or Physical Regions –Places (areas) that share a physical characteristic or process (landforms, climate, other physical characteristics) Human Regions –Places (areas) that share economic, political, or human characteristics Composite Regions –Places (areas) that share several characteristics (culture regions and ecosystems)

26 IMPORTANT!!!!! A place might belong to many different regions at the same time. Example- Windsor, Ontario –Windsor is in the political region of the province of Ontario. –Windsor is in the economic region of Quebec/Ontario. –Windsor is in the physical region of the St. Lawrence Lowlands.

27 Canada’s Physical Regions  Canadian Shield  St. Lawrence Lowlands  Appalachian  Interior Plains  Western Mountains  Hudson Bay Lowlands  Arctic Islands

28 Canada’s Human Regions: Political PROVINCESTERRITORIES Nova ScotiaYukon Territory Prince Edward IslandNorthwest Territories New BrunswickNunavut Newfoundland and Labrador Ontario Quebec Alberta Manitoba Saskatchewan British Columbia

29 Canada’s Human Regions: Economic  Atlantic (Maritime) Provinces  Ontario and Quebec  Prairie Provinces  British Columbia  The Territories

30 The Atlantic (Maritime) Provinces The region’s provinces have at least one border on the Atlantic Ocean or one of its gulfs and seas. The fishing industry employs approximately 3% of the region’s workers. Most jobs in the region are in manufacturing, farming, mining, shipping, and tourism.

31 Quebec and Ontario Region considered the ‘heartland of Canada’ An economic region that contains two separate cultural (Composite) regions –Ontario English Canadian –Quebec French-Canadian Region holds most of Canada’s population and two largest cities –Montreal, Quebec and Toronto, Ontario Region produces most of Canada’s manufactured goods Region produces a range of consumer goods and products from other industries, including iron and steel Region located near major waterways St. Lawrence Seaway provides direct access to the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean Region’s major centers of economic activity –Quebec: Montreal –Ontario: The Golden Horseshoe (including Toronto)

32 The Prairie Provinces Largest cities in the region: –Edmonton and Calgary in Alberta –Winnipeg in Manitoba Fertile soil – great farming Known as Canada’s ‘breadbasket’. Southern portion of the region has many wheat farms and ranches. Northern portion of the region covered by forests. Region supplies most of Canada’s fossil fuels including –Coal –Oil –Natural gas

33 British Columbia Region includes a single province Largest city is Vancouver –Contains Canada’s busiest port –Links Canada to trading partners in Asia and the United States Contains evergreen forests and many rivers and lakes Economic activities: Cutting trees Processing lumber Manufacturing paper Fishing Recreation Hydroelectric power

34 The Territories Region covers a huge area of northern Canada (40% of Canada’s total land area!) Very few people No large cities Most people meet their basic needs by –Hunting –Fishing Little major economic activity other than –Mining

35 The 5 Themes of Geography…remember? Location Place Human/Environment Interaction Movement Regions

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