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1.  To dwell in the past is foolish. To forget the past is a disgrace. 2.

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Presentation on theme: "1.  To dwell in the past is foolish. To forget the past is a disgrace. 2."— Presentation transcript:

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2  To dwell in the past is foolish. To forget the past is a disgrace. 2

3  In this lesson, we will be discussing how humanism changed the idea of the individual from something sinful and controlled by the Church into something of great beauty and worth. 3

4  Overreaching social and intellectual philosophies of the Renaissance era - beauty of the individual was elevated to preeminence.  Humanism is the belief that man has beauty, worth, and dignity.  Therefore, life on Earth should be cherished rather than simply endured. 4

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6  Middle Ages - 3rd and 13th centuries – life & culture were primarily focused on the Church and religion.  Beginning of 14th century - power of the Church began to greatly decline.  This decline is the main reason for the development of humanism.  People became less interested in thinking about God, the afterlife, and the saints and more interested in themselves, their natural world, and the here and now. 6

7  Two main causes of this decline.  Bubonic Plague - ravaged Europe and killed over half of many countries' populations.  As the plague devastated and destroyed, the Church was helpless to stop it.  People prayed, filled cathedrals, yet loved ones continued to die.  Led many to disenchantment - seek out other explanations beyond the spiritual for human suffering and loss. 7

8  Second - perhaps most profound reason - rise of the market economy.  Money began to be amassed through trade - power of the Church declined even more.  From this rose city-states and monarchies governed more by economy than religious restriction.  Church became too stuffy, too impractical, and too rigid - replaced with the secular human's capacity to learn, create, and enjoy!  Replaced with the idea of humanism - study of human progress and human nature is at the center of all 8

9  Humanism radically changed the idea of individual independence.  Prior to the 14th century - wealth was based on land ownership.  People seen as part of a collective whole - keep feudal society and the manor system intact.  Serfs - poor workers - used by the wealthy to work their land holdings and keep their wealth intact.  Church believed that to be concerned with yourself and your rights was nothing more than arrogance, rebellion, and sin!  One should only be concerned with obeying the rules and following them without question. 9

10  Thanks to the plague & rise of trade, the power of the Church and feudalism shrank and the importance of the individual grew.  Man and human nature were no longer seen as totally sinful and in need of punishment but instead as independent, beautiful, and individual creations of God.  Writings of Petrarch, the Father of Humanism, in which he states, 'Sameness is the mother of disgust, variety the cure!’ - Go on and express yourself!  These ideals were further expressed in the famous speech, The Dignity of Man, in which the renowned orator Mirandola states, 'You with no limit or no bound, may choose for yourself!’ - You're an individual - you're an independent - you're free! 10

11  Up to this point, anything not centered around the Church was considered sinful.  Man and earth were wicked, and only heaven and the afterlife were worthy for human thought.  Humanism changed this - scholars, artists, and writers - centered their works on man and his experience while here on earth rather than in the afterlife.  Instead of focusing on penance and self- denial, humanists resurrected the ideals of the ancient Greeks, who placed the study and progress of human nature at the center of their interests. 11

12  Dante's Divine Comedy - his individual journey to God, rather than a journey to God through the Church.  Led many to be curious about a personal relationship with God rather than a religion sculpted by the Church.  Interest in the human rather than the afterlife - The Decameron, by Giovanni Boccaccio.  Humanism - individual chooses to enjoy the human story rather than the old Church ideals of pain and punishment. 12

13  H umanism - overreaching social and intellectual philosophies of the Renaissance era.  Idea that man has beauty, worth, and dignity developed as the church declined.  This decline mainly occurred for two reasons.  The carnage of the Black Death and the Church's inability to explain or stop the suffering - look for answers outside the church walls.  Rise of the market economy - replaced feudalism and freed the individual from serfdom - make money, grow, and think on their own.  Humanism changed the thoughts of the day in the areas of individual independence and individual interests.  People were no longer seen as tools for the wealthy or objects of God's wrath but instead as individuals created by God with their own unique gifts and talents.  Variety, differences, and creativity were embraced rather than shunned.  Humanistic thoughts - here and now, while the capacity of man to live and enjoy was celebrated.  Reintroduced to humanity the Greek ideal that life on earth should truly be lived rather than simply endured and that man, not the Church, is at the center of all things. 13

14  How can you connect the history of the Renaissance to other world events and to the world you live in today?  Reflect on what you have learned and consider what this study means to you personally and as citizens of a democracy.  I did not know that…  I couldn’t believe that…  If I were _____, I think I…  If I were _____, I wish I…  This incident reminds me of a time when…  This incident reminds me of a book in which…  This incident reminds me of an experience that…  When I read ______, I…  I think that…  This person, ______, is similar to _____ because…  This event is ______, is similar to because… 14

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