2Questions Think of a time when you changed your mind about something. What caused your new way of thinking to come about?Were you influenced by other people, by things you saw or read, or by some other factor?NOW IMAGINE A NEW WAY OF THINKING TAKING PLACE ACROSS AN ENTIRE CONTINENT.That’s what happened during the Renaissance.
3A Rebirth of IdeasThe Renaissance saw a new way of thinking take place across an entire continent.This new way of thinking appears to have started in the northern Italian city-states, where scholars and philosophers now Humanists looked back to the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome.Rather than just the religious perspective on classical writing the Renaissance saw educated people begin to look at them differently.
4Classical WritingsDuring the Renaissance, educated people began to look at ancient works differently and not just from the Christian perspective.They admired the eloquent writing styles and became interested in their ideas about society, politics, history and the arts.You could see the Renaissance worldview as a result of intercultural contact with earlier civilizationsGreek and Roman – “Classical Civilizations”Islamic Civilization which preserved on expanded on the knowledge of civilization of India and the Far East.
5Humanist ideas spread mainly among the wealthy people in society. Reading and discussing ancient writers became a fad among the merchant and business class.
6The 10 CommandmentsThou shalt have no other gods before me.Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vainRemember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.Honour thy father and thy mother:Thou shalt not kill.Thou shalt not commit adultery.Thou shalt not steal.Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s.
8Think it ThroughThe 10 Commandments are an important code in the Christian and Jewish religions and those values are also reflected in Islam.Compare the Code for Long Life and Wisdom with the Ten Commandments.In what ways do both codes express similar values?How does modern day society enforce these values?
9Humanism – Borrowing from the Greek and Romans Explain each quote.Do you think the views expressed by Juvenal, Plutarch and Aristotle remain part of our society’s worldview? Explain.
10Suggest ways each element of the Code for Long Life and Wisdom can be applied in modern daily life.
11Humanism and the Individual Humanists believed people could shape their lives through their own talents and efforts. They believed in the potential of the individual. Humanists believed that:Human beings can use the power of reason, that it, thinking to find truth for themselves.It is important for a person to have an open, curious, and questioning mind.People can achieve great things through learningIndividuals should be skilled in many different areas. They should develop not just their minds but also their bodies and spirits.
12Which of the previous ideas about the individual do you think are still part of the worldview of our society?
13Humanist ScholarsHumanists began to see theirs as a glorious time, a “renaissance,” when ideas and values of ancient times were “reborn.”Greek and Roman manuscripts were preserved in libraries in the Muslim world and cathedral libraries throughout Europe.Petrarch and other humanists collected, translated and made copies of these manuscripts .Humanists wanted to make the ideas in these ancient works available to the widest possible readership. They thought that in order to be truly cultured, a person should read good books and look at great works of art.
15Name ten people you think affect thinking in our society today? What means do they use to get their message across?
16Thinkers and SocietyRenaissance humanists were often the intellectual leaders of their communities.There were humanist scholars, philosophers, teacher, public officials, writers, scientists, architects, artists and musicians.Some had important positions in the government and church and therefore were able to affect many aspects of Renaissance society.
17Civic HumanismCivic humanists believed that being a responsible citizen meant educating yourself about history and political issues and working to improve society.Cicero’s idea that public service was the duty of everyone in society was very influential.Why is being an informed citizen important?
18Humanist EducationOne of the most important ways humanists influenced Renaissance society was in the emphasis they put on education.Many humanists were dedicated teachers who ran their own schoolsThey believed it was important to train young people’s character and bodies as well as the mind.They also encouraged a curious, questioning attitude in their studentsHumanists added to the traditional subjects studied during the Middle Ages.
19Humanism and ReligionThe classical text that were admired and studied by Renaissance scholars were written before the beginnings of Christianity.Renaissance thinkers emphasized ideas and values such as individual achievement and the importance of history and the arts.Religion continued to play an important role but not to the degree it did during the Middle Ages.
20QuestionMany public institutions are named for the people who made donations to them.What do you think of think of this policy?In Judaism, Christianity and Islam, anonymous charity is considered superior to charity in which the donor is identified. What are your views about this idea?
21Society and the ArtsRenaissance artists became interested in portraying the beauty of the human body.
22In the Middle Ages most art had religious themes and while this continued through the Renaissance, humanist artists began to interpret these subjects in new ways.
23SculptureIn the Middle Ages sculptors were not seen as artists but rather as craftspeople. Sculptors like Michelangelo became celebrities with international reputations during the Renaissance.
24LiteratureIn the early Renaissance, writers focused on translating the works of Roman and Greek writers and copying their styles.Humanism influenced writers to focus on expressing their thoughts and emotions.