2SAMUEL I Myths and Realities Second Language Acquisition Classroom Strategies in Content TeachingAssessing in Proficiency Levels
3Second Language Acquisition: Myths & Misconceptions Do you agree or disagree with the following statements?AgreeDisagree1When an EL has acquired communicative fluency, he will be able to handle academic assignments with little difficulty.2Oral fluency is a strong indicator that an EL will succeed in the classroom.3Placing a child learning English in a mainstream classroom will ensure that he/she will succeed in learning English quickly.Have each person answer the following questions individually.Review
4(Whole Group) What is BICS, give me an example (Whole Group) What is BICS, give me an example? (This is conversational English such as “playground English”)“ “ What is CALP, what are some examples? (This is the language required of an EL when learning academic English in the content areas. Examples in math are knowing what plus, minus, add, subtraction mean).Dwell upon the importance of the two for our students. (It is important that we realize it takes about 6 months to a year for our ELs to learn basic English (BICS) and that it takes from years for some ELs to learn CALP, academic English.)
5Social Language Academic Language BICS is the social language, and CALP is the academic language. It is under the iceberg because it takes much longer to reach the surface.
6Developmental Stages of Second Language Acquisition •Preproduction WIDA→ • Entering• Early Production • Beginning• Speech Emergence • Developing• Intermediate Fluency • Expanding• Advanced Fluency • BridgingPair with someone you do not know, “Why is it important to know your ELs language developmental stage? (You need to know this so you can design lessons that are comprehensible to your EL)How will it help you to know their language developmental stage when teaching content subjects in the classroom? (By knowing the developmental stage of your EL, it is easy to develop lessons in science, math, etc because the levels tell you what can be expected of your EL in their language development. Using the WIDA “Can do Indicators” is also helpful when teaching in the content ).
7Begins to produce words they have heard and understood repeatedly Which of the following will an EL experience in all of the stages of language acquisition?Silent stageBegins to produce words they have heard and understood repeatedlyDevelops receptive vocabularyEntering/PreproductionBeginning/Early ProductionWhich one of these will a student experience in every stage of development. “building a receptive voc.”ALL
8Strategies for teaching els in the content area ELs experience challenges specific to content areas.A multitude of strategies can be used to help meet these challenges. (hands-on activities, graphic organizers, group activities, step by step directions, etc)Every content area has a vocabulary specific to that content area (even Math).Challenges specific toScience-multi-step directions, Scientific method, making predictions and drawing conclusionsSocial Studies-Limited background knowledge, complexity of text, limited understanding of cultural issuesMath-different formation of numbers/symbols, use of math manipulatives can be considered play, Math voc.Reading-idioms, homophone, homonyms, synonyms, antonyms, text with large number of unknown words.Writing-verb tense, pronouns, limited sense of what “sounds right”, limited ability to edit own text
9Ideas for assessing els Entering/BeginningAdvanced Beginners-IntermediateYes/no or single word responsesPointing/gesturing cloze activitiesHands-on tasksClass projectsGroup workPortfoliosKWL chartsRole playingCompletion of graphic organizersSimplified study guidesLimit assessment to key vocabulary of conceptsAllow students use of notes or texts.Answer essay questions orallySimply essay questions into manageable partsUse larger type, more white spaceFill in modified outline, story web
10SAMUEL IIExploring CultureImportance of Parental Involvement
12Stand Up If… Stand Up and Be Counted Click twiceReadStand up if.....• you speak another language• one of your grandparents speaks another language.• you consider yourself old.• you feel your profession is respected by others.• you consider yourself a member of a minority group.• you see yourself as disabled in any way.• you think you are really good at your profession.• you consider yourself well educated.• you consider yourself financially secure.• one of your parents came to the U.S. from a foreign country.• one of your(great) grandparents graduated from college.• you have traveled outside of North America.Ask:Which items were you reluctant to stand up for and why?How did it feel to be standing alone or with just a few people?This activity is designed to demonstrate how we are all members of a minority
13Cultural Truths or Stereotypes QuestionAgreeDisagree1. You arrive at dinner an hour late in Costa Rica. Your hosts will be insulted.2. The parents of your student from Brazil show that they don’t care how their child is doing in school when they arrive 45 minutes late for a conference with you.3. Your Mexican parents keep their children out of school on the flimsiest of pretexts. They don’t care about their children’s education.4. Your new student from Argentina stares at you all the time. The student is belligerent and wasn’t taught any manners.Answer each question alone.Share your answers and view points of these cultural occurrences at your tables.Review with whole group (answers below)1. In many Latin American countries, an invitation for 9:00 does not really mean 9:00. A 9:00 dinner will probably not be serveduntil 11:00 p.m. This holds true for Arab countries, India and Pakistan cultures.2. The concept of time in most South American countries is different from time in the U.S.A. 45 minutes is still acceptable for waitingperiod. If a person is too prompt, he is considered a status seeker.3. It’s not that they don’t care about education but that the family is more highly valued. If a family member needs help, that is a priority.4. Staring is not considered rude in many Latin American cultures.
14CULTURE PRIDE SHIELDReview this activity with participants. Let them know this is a good activity for family night.Participant ACTIVITY: draw a shield shape on a piece of paper. Divide it into 4 sections. In the first section write your name and any nicknames you go by, both at school and home.In the second section through 4th section draw symbols or words to representSelfB. Your familyC. Your culture3. Then share as a whole group…This activity is A WAY OF EXPRESSING WHO YOUR ELS ARE AND IT HELPS THEM FEEL GOOD ABOUT WHERE THEY COME FROM. IT HELPS TO SHARE CULTURE IN A POSITIVE MANNER WHILE INCLUDING THEIR PARENTS/CULTURE IN THE MAINSTREAM CLASSROOM.
159 Truths about Parental Involvement (Tery Medina) Parents have hopes and dreams for their children. The home is the primary of several domains that simultaneously influence a child’s education. The parent is the central contributor to a child’s formal and informal education. Parental involvement requires a vision, a policy and a structure for support and action.
169 Truths about Parental Involvement (Tery Medina) cont. Parental involvement is a process, not a program of activities. Parents’ interaction with their own children is the cornerstone of involvement. Barriers to Parental Involvement are found within school policies and practices. Any parent can be “hard to reach”. Successful Parental involvement nurtures relationships and partnerships.
17Did You Know?“The way schools care about children is reflected in the way schools care about the children’s families”(Epstein, 1995)Participants write names of two students on a separate sticky note.Participants take sticky notes up to the front and stick them on a board or chart paper (wherever is conducive)Share statistics (from Colorin Colorado, 2002).50% of latino students drop out of school by the ninth grade (remove ½ of sticky-notes to show 50%).20% drop out of high school before grade 12 (remove another handful).Another 10% are not able to pass state required test and receive a diploma (remove more names)As everyone looks at remaining names, continue with the graduation rate.Say “the only way students will achieve college and career ready is through strong support through school and home.”Read quote. (click)
18Did You Know?According to a review of recent research published by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (2002), students whose parents are actively involved in their education, no matter what their income or background, are more likely to:Earn higher grades and test scores andenroll in higher-level programs.Be promoted, pass their classes, and earn credits.Attend school regularly.Have better social skills, show improved behaviors, and adapt well to school.Graduate and go on to post-secondary education.Discuss the slide.
19Redefining Parental Involvement Investing in families You’ve got to remove the barriers in order to build the bridge Be proactive do not expect the parents to just enter your school on their own Create a welcoming environment for parents by building on their cultural values Parent liaisons who not only understand the culture and the language but also have “shared experiences” are better able to act as intermediaries between families and school staff
20We Can Also Hold…Family Literacy Nights Family Math Nights Family Night Dinners Multicultural Day: Families share their country crafts, foods, arts. Music, dance to entire school. Adopt a student- EL parent helps an EL child with school work. Parents read in their first language a story book to regular classroom.Review each bullet.
21We Can Also…When studying EL’s country/culture we can invite parents in the classroom to share culture and artifacts. If parent does not speak their child can speak while the parent shows artifacts.Ask parents to translate books written by students to create bilingual books. EL students can tell parents what the page says and parents can write it in their first language.Ask students to interview parents about a specific topic to share with the classroom.In the EL classroom allow students to plan a family reception and put on a show for parents.Discuss bullets
22SAMUEL IIIWIDA StandardsStandards Based Assessment
23Social Language Academic Language BICS is the social language, and CALP is the academic language. It is under the iceberg because it takes much longer to reach the surface.
24Language vs. ContentLanguage proficiency involves the language associated with the content areas. Content knowledge reflects the declarative (what) and procedural knowledge (how) associated with the content.24
25BOTTOM LINE . . .For students to achieve academically and demonstrate learning on a larger scale, such as high stakes assessments, they MUST master Academic Language.In order to master Academic Language we must adhere to standards that consider the Academic Language of the content areas. WIDA Standards concentrate on that language.25
26Five WIDA ELP Standards Standard 1- SIL: English language learners communicate for SOCIAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL purposes within the school setting.Standard 2 – LoLA: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of LANGUAGE ARTS.Standard 3 – LoMA: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of MATHEMATICS.Standard 4 – LoSC: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of SCIENCE.Standard 5 – LoSS: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of SOCIAL STUDIES.The WIDA ELP standards are organized into five categories:SIL = Social and Instructional LanguageLoLA = Language of Language ArtsLoMA = Language of MathematicsLoSC = Language of ScienceLoSS = Language of Social StudiesWithin each framework, there are 5 standards. The 5 standards are represented in each of the 4 language domains.WIDA Consortium / CAL / MetriTech26
27ELP Standard 1ELs communicate for SOCIAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL purposes within the school setting27
28Social and Instructional Language Examples of Standard 1Social and Instructional LanguageClassroom language(ex. “Put your glue and scissors on the table”.)Routines(ex. “It is time to line up for P.E.”)Instructions /assignments(ex. “Turn to page 143 in your Social Studies book and read the first two paragraphs”.)School behavior(ex. “Always walk in the hallway”.)Recreational objects and activities(Let’s play kickball on the playground”.)Here are just a few examples of the language that a classroom teacher might use during the day. Think of some other words that an EL child might never have heard before he/she walked through the door of the school. Also, consider that some of your younger English speaking children may have never heard some of these words before entering school. Never assume that a child/student knows what the word gym or a cafeteria means.28
29ELP Standard 2ELs communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of LANGUAGE ARTSRead slide29
30Standard 2 The Language of Language Arts Writing a book reportGiving a personal narrativeActing in a playDiscussing a story or poemThink of some language that a student might have to know in order to successfully complete one of the above task. Choose one of the tasks and create a list of words that the student would need to have mastered.
31ELP Standard 3ELs communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of MATHEMATICSRead slide31
32Standard 3 Language of Mathematics PatternsGeometryAlgebraic EquationsDescribing strategies for solving problemsUnits of measureTimeDiscussion of basic operationsAt your table, pick one of the examples of math concepts that a student is required to be able to complete. Generate a quick list of vocabulary that an EL student may need to know to be successful.
33ELP Standard 4ELs communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of SCIENCE.Read slide33
34Standard 4 Language of Science Completing an experimentPhotosynthesisSimple MachinesGeneticsCellAstronomyMeteorologyThink of some language that a student might have to know in order to successfully complete one of the above Science tasks. Choose one of the tasks and create a list of words that the student would need to have mastered.
35ELP Standard 5ELs communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of SOCIAL STUDIESRead slide35
36Standard 5 Language of Social Studies GeographyCommunity/NeighborhoodsGovernmentEconomicsThink of some language that a student might have to know in order to successfully master one of the above Soc. Studies concepts. Choose one of the tasks and create a list of words that the student would need to have mastered.
37Four Language DomainsListening ─ process, understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken language in a variety of situationsSpeaking ─ engage in oral communication in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and audiencesReading ─ process, interpret, and evaluate written language, symbols, and text with understanding and fluencyWriting ─ engage in written communication in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiencesListening/Speaking/Reading/Writing are the four main language skills.Listening and Reading are comprehension skills that involve receptive language;Speaking and Writing are communication skills that require productive or expressive language.In order to give educators a comprehensive picture of EL students’ English language proficiency – and to comply with federal law - all four domains are tested on the ACCESS for ELs test and the W-APT screener.37
38Levels of English Language Proficiency 6ENTERINGBEGINNINGDEVELOPINGEXPANDING12345BRIDGINGR E A C H I N GThe labels used for the six proficiency levels were created by the WIDA development team. EL status is restricted to levels 1 through 5. A student reaching level 6 shows no language characteristics that would distinguish him or her as needing special English language services. Such a student would be capable enough in all language domains: Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing, to be able to benefit fully from mainstream classroom instruction. Note that a student at a lower level in the policy set by states or school districts may be designated as functionally able to participate in and benefit from regular classroom instruction and may, in fact, be exited from special English language services. In Alabama, the exit level is 4.8.WIDA Consortium / CAL / MetriTech3838
39Criteria for Performance Definitions (Review) ENTERINGBEGINNINGDEVELOPINGEXPANDINGBRIDGING543216R E A C H I N GLinguistic Complexity:The amount and quality of speech or writing for a given situationVocabulary Usage:The specificity of words or phrases for a given contextLanguage Control:The comprehensibility of the communication based on the amount and type of errorsRemind the participants what each criteria means because the next activity involves using them in the WIDA writing rubric.WIDA Consortium39
40Performance Level Expectations at Different Proficiency Levels Language Proficiency(Performance Level Descriptions)1 Entering2 Beginning3 Developing4 Expanding5 BridgingPIsL 1L 2L 3L4L 5Linguistic ComplexityVocabulary UsageLanguage ControlYou can see how a student’s command of each three criteria expands and develops as s/he undergoes the process of second language acquisition as it relates to CALP.WIDA Consortium40
41Model performance indicators An MPI is a language objective that contains 3 parts:A language function word such as describe,label, critique.The content of the lessonSupport or scaffolding to help the EL obtain the content.41
42The Model Performance Indicator Language Function Here is an example of an MPI or Language Objective. Let’s look at the 3 parts of the MPI: Language Function, Content Stem, Support or scaffold.Click for next slideWIDA Consortium / CAL / MetriTech42
43The Model Performance Indicator Language Function Language Function = “Describe”Content Stem = “objects of the earth or sky”Support = “from observation, photographs or models”The language refers to words such as describe, infer, predict, identify and state.WIDA Consortium / CAL / MetriTech43
44Planning: Can Do Descriptors Use with ELP scores from each language domain.More specific than Performance Definitions.Describes the language functions an EL“CAN DO” with support at a given ELP level.Built upon the Performance Definitions.Most useful tool for teachers in planning.Can you identify the “CAN DO” level in each domain for the native English speakers in your classroom?Discuss the “Can Do Descriptors” explaining how easy it tells you what your EL can do at their English Proficiency Level. Show sample “Can Do” form.44
45Can-do Descriptors do not include the content stem, just the language function and support. 45
47WIDA has a Writing and Speaking rubric that can be accessed through the WIDA website. These can be used to assess students writing ability. An ex. would be taking a writing assessment that you already have in place and scoring the assessment using this rubric.47
48Effective Assessment FOR ELs: ELs MAY NOT RECEIVE FAILING GRADES or BE RETAINED AS A RESULT OF ANY LANGUAGE BARRIER. *Is an I-ELP in place? *Was appropriate instruction used to increase comprehension and develop CALP according to the student’s EPL? *Were authentic assessment methods used to evaluate EL student learning of content? *Were all content objectives included in student’s instruction? *What level of mastery on content objectives did student demonstrate?Take turns having someone read a bullet.Discuss Bullets48
49Failing Grades & Retention Documentation to support actionDevelop a protocolPossible components:Samples of regular and accommodated documentsSamples of graded and/or accommodated student workBrief narrative of teacher behaviorsaccommodations madeteacher observations of student behaviorcontact with EL specialistcontact with parentsDiscuss bullets49
50Grades and Retention Continued Grades and retention should be determined through support of evidence.ASK YOURSELFWere accommodations provided?Was consideration made of student’s level of language proficiency?Were progress monitoring and intervention strategies implemented?Discuss bullets50
51Instruction and Grading Individual English Language Plan(I-ELP)Establish language development goalsClassroom AccommodationsLower the language barrierProvide access to curriculumAssessment accommodationsGradingELs may not receive failing grades or be retained as a function of language proficiency.Discuss and ask questions51
52Where to Go for WIDA Resources Access and download the sample ACCESS for ELLs test items and the W-APT test materialsTake Online ACCESS for ELLs Test Administrator Training CourseRead FAQs about WIDA and ACCESS for ELLsAccess your state’s page with contact information, important dates, state policies, and local training opportunitiesPurchase and/or download the WIDA ELP Standards and Resource GuideLearn more about WIDA staff, products, and servicesTo access the WIDA sample test items go to the WIDA website, scroll down on the side bar to the Assessment Tools, click on ACCESS for ELLs. On that page, under the ACCESS for ELLs Assessment Overview, you will see a green bar that says “Grades Sample Items.WIDA Consortium / CAL / MetriTech5252
53Contact InformationHeidi Goertzen– Title III/ESL Specialist Dely V. Roberts – Title III/ESL Specialist Dr. Tammy Hallman Starnes– Title III/ESL Coordinator 5348 Gordon Persons Building--50 North Ripley Street Montgomery, AL53