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Survival Skills 101 For English Learners

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1 Survival Skills 101 For English Learners
SAMUEL I Survival Skills 101 For English Learners Myths and Realities Second Language Acquisition Classroom Strategies in Content Teaching Assessing in Proficiency Levels

2 Te Kunfoojun uv Fonixs I hav noomonyuh. Mukaniks werk on musheens.
I wood lick tu spek wit yu ubout mi cild. Mi boe iz sik. He go tu doktr. Tank yu fore techen mi cild. Why is phonics confusing for ELs? ( The English language is a borrowed language composed of many countries, therefore when we have general rules (such as I before except after c) they do not ALWAYS apply to every situation. Also, we have more than one sound for our phonemes. Most other countries only have one sound per phoneme.) At your tables, decipher the sentences and analyze the sentences. Discuss why the EL parents wrote these sentences using inventive spelling.(Could have written it this way because they used their phonemes in their first language or they used phonetic or inventive spelling).

3 Idioms Time flies like an arrow. It’s raining cats and dogs.
If it were a snake it would have bit you. It’s for the birds. You can kill two birds with one stone. Catch you on the flip side. Did the cat get your tongue. 1.On chart paper, at your tables, draw a picture of any of the idiom sentences on the left side, and on the right side of the paper, draw the true meaning of the idiom. 2.Share 3. Do you think this would be a good way to teach Els in the classroom? (yes because they are letting you know visually what they are thinking. This is a good assessment t see what the EL comprehends).

4 Today We Will Morning Goals Afternoon Goals
Look at Myths and Realities regarding ELs Recognize our students language acquisition level Review the importance of “Differentiating Instruction” Afternoon Goals Uncover Classroom Strategies when teaching Math, Reading, Writing, Science, and Social Studies Examine appropriate classroom assessments Pair and read goals Tell a different partner to the other side of you what we will be doing today. Discuss at the table, “Why are these goals important for your learning”?

5 Second Language Acquisition: Myths & Misconceptions

6 Second Language Acquisition: Myths & Misconceptions
Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Agree Disagree 1 Oral fluency is a strong indicator that an EL will succeed in the classroom. 2 Younger children learn a second language faster than older children? 3 Placing a child learning English in a mainstream classroom will ensure that he/she will succeed in learning English quickly. Have each person answer the following questions individually.

7 I Agree with___ because I Disagree with___ because
At your tables, share your answers and use the following prompt after listening to partners answers (I agree with name because… or I disagree with name because) Let them know this is an EL strategy we are using 2. Whole group discuss

8 Second Language Acquisition: Myths & Misconceptions
Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Agree Disagree 4 When an EL has acquired communicative fluency, he will be able to handle academic assignments with little difficulty. 5 It is important to insist that beginning ELs speak in the classroom. 6 Teacher should encourage ELs to continue reading in their native language. Have each person answer the following questions individually.

9 I Agree with___ because I Disagree with___ because
At your tables, share your answers and use the following prompt after listening to partners answers (I agree with name because… or I disagree with name because) Let them know this is an EL strategy we are using 2. Whole group discuss

10 Second Language Acquisition: Myths & Misconceptions
Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Agree Disagree 7 A child saying “goed” for “went” shows that he is not learning (mastering) the patterns of English. 8 ELs should not be interrupted and corrected as they make mistakes when speaking. 9 Teachers should suggest to parents of ELs that they use English and avoid using the native language at home. Have each person answer the following questions individually

11 I Agree with___ because I Disagree with___ because
At your tables, share your answers and use the following prompt after listening to partners answers (I agree with name because… or I disagree with name because) Let them know this is an EL strategy we are using 2. Whole group discuss

12 Language Acquisition Knowing Our Students
What comes to mind when you hear the word “language acquisition?” Share at your tables what you think language acquisition involves, share Why is language acquisition important when learning content area subjects?( You need to know your students level of language acquisition so you, the teacher, will know what can be expected of your student, how to design lessons to meet your students language needs, and you can apply the WIDA standards and “Can do Indicators” to your students language level.)

13 (Whole Group) What is BICS, give me an example
(Whole Group) What is BICS, give me an example? (This is conversational English such as “playground English”) “ “ What is CALP, what are some examples? (This is the language required of an EL when learning academic English in the content areas. Examples in math are knowing what plus, minus, add, subtraction mean). Dwell upon the importance of the two for our students. (It is important that we realize it takes about 6 months to a year for our ELs to learn basic English (BICS) and that it takes from years for some ELs to learn CALP, academic English.)

14 Social Language Academic Language
BICS is the social language, and CALP is the academic language. It is under the iceberg because it takes much longer to reach the surface.

15 Developmental Stages of Second Language Acquisition
•Preproduction WIDA→ • Entering • Early Production • Beginning • Speech Emergence • Developing • Intermediate Fluency • Expanding •Advanced Fluency • Bridging Pair with someone you do not know, “Why is it important to know your ELs language developmental stage? (You need to know this so you can design lessons that are comprehensible to your EL) How will it help you to know their language developmental stage when teaching content subjects in the classroom? (By knowing the developmental stage of your EL, it is easy to develop lessons in science, math, etc because the levels tell you what can be expected of your EL in their language development. Using the WIDA “Can do Indicators” is also helpful when teaching in the content ).

16 Entering/ Preproduction
Description of the Activities that Promote Developmental Stage Language Acquisition Students… • experience a silent •hands on learning period • listen to language •games • begin to develop a •role playing receptive vocabulary • demonstrate •dramatization comprehension nonverbally • storytelling On a piece of paper that you can turn in, write three activities you can do when teaching any topic in Social Studies. Ask one person from each table to collect the papers and redistribute them to different members at the table. Each table will read the paper given to their group. (Remind them that this is another strategy used for ELs)

17 Beginning/ Early Production
Description of the Activities that Promote Developmental Stage Language Acquisition Students… • continue to develop • hands-on learning activities receptive vocabulary • produce words that they • asking questions that require have heard and understood single word responses to repeatedly encourage verbal interaction • can respond to simple questions. Let them know that what worked in the entering stages also works on the beginning stages. Single word responses do not mean “yes” “no” Ask, “What are some content area single word questions we can ask?” (Show me, tell me, explain)

18 Developing Speech Emergence
Description of the Developmental Stage Activities that Promote Language Acquisition Students… • continue to develop receptive vocabulary • begin to produce combinations of words (i.e., phrases/short sentences) • make errors when trying to communicate • hands-on learning activities • activities designed to develop higher levels of language use (e.g. making simple comparisons, describing and sequencing events) • language experience Ask” How are the first two levels different from this level?” (The developing stage is when the student understands basic English, can follow directions, and is ready through graphic organizers and scaffolding, to devlop academic English) At your tables and with small groups make a Venn diagram and compare the first stages of language development to the developing stage(Remind them that this is an activity used for Els comprehension and clarification, along with assessment.) Share

19 Expanding/ Intermediate Fluency
Description of the Developmental Stage Activities that Promote Language Acquisition Students… • continue to develop receptive vocabulary • develop speech and fluency • engage in conversation and produce full sentences and connected narrative • produce language that reflects critical and creative thinking • hands-on learning activities • activities that integrate the learning of language and content to promote the development of higher levels of language use Discuss stage

20 Bridging/ Advanced Fluency
Description of the Developmental Stage Activities that Promote Language Acquisition Students… • approach native-like fluency •continue to use the strategies previously discussed, as needed, to support language development at this stage Discuss how the students should still be monitored because academic vocabulary can always impede learning.

21 Reviewing Language Acquisition Developmental Stages
Number off heads 1-6. Form as many groups of 6 (one group may have less). Using notes we will form concentric circles to share our new knowledge. (I will explain if you do not know this activity) Make sure participants understand that this is an assessment strategy for ELs. Concentric Circles: Step-by-Step Instructions 1. Explain to the group that this will be a very loud activity. Demonstrate how you will regain their attention. 2. Ask participants if they have an odd or even birthday. For example, someone born on October 31st has an odd birthday (31 is an odd number) and someone born on February 14th has an even birthday (14 is an even number). 3. Request for everyone with an even birthday to form a circle in the designated space. They should stand in the circle shoulder to shoulder. The circle should have a big empty space in the middle. While maintaining their spaces, ask them to turn around 180 degrees. This should leave an intact circle but each participant facing outwards. 4. Have participants with odd birthdays walk to the circle and stand in front of a person with an even birthday, face to face. This should leave you with two circles (your participants are pairing up). If your numbers don’t work out perfectly, move people around so that everyone has a partner. 5. Tell participants that when you say, "Go!" they will have 3 to 4 minutes to introduce themselves to their partner and they will each answer 3 questions (List of Suggested Questions). 6. After the time is up, get the group’s attention before going to the next instruction. 7. Ask participants in the outer circle ONLY to move 3 people to their right, not counting the person they just talked to. This can be difficult. Help one person in the group find their "new partner." Everyone else should fall into place. 8. Explain to group that now they have 3 to 4 minutes to each answer 3 different questions with their new partner. When time is up, ask the outer group to again move 3 people to their right. 9. When they arrive at their last "partner," ask 3 new questions and allow another 3 to 4 minutes for both partners to answer. 10. Ask everyone to return to their original seats. 11. Once everyone has returned to their seats, discuss what was learned.

22 Pair and Share What does differentiating instruction mean to you?
What are some ways you can differentiate instruction for ELs? Share with whole group. Note to the teachers how the vocabulary word is highlighted in a different color(Strategy for ELs).

23 Differentiating Instruction Before The Lesson
I Can Plan ahead. Look over your content to determine what concepts and vocabulary your ELs will need help with. Think about how you will make content comprehensible for your ELs. Think, Pair, and Share how you can Differentiate Instruction (DI) Before The Lesson.

24 As you organize your lessons, consider the following factors:
Build on students’ background knowledge. Consider showing a video or reading a book aloud about your topic. Remember to teach concrete vocabulary and concepts first. Think of creative ways to link the content of your lesson to the students’ previous knowledge. Remember to link your current lesson with the one previously taught. Decide what language and concepts need pre-teaching. Review the bullets and emphasize the importance in black bold . 2. Ask, “Does anyone have any other ideas of how to Differentiate Instruction before the lesson”?

25 Before The Lesson Reflect on how you can teach with oral, visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning modalities.  Prepare teaching aids in advance. Assemble graphic organizers, charts, graphs, and webs for the lesson. Add vocabulary word banks to student activities. Adapt textbooks to paraphrase key concepts in English. Eliminate nonessential details. Ask native English speakers in your class to go to the library and find non-fiction books on the lesson topic that are written on a simpler level. Read and discuss bullets

26 During The Lesson Build on what ELs already know.
Use simplified vocabulary and sentence structure. Pre-teach key vocabulary in context. Provide ELs questions in advance so they can prepare. Introduce concrete concepts and vocabulary before you move to abstract topics. Teach students to categorize their information using graphic. Create semantic and story maps for ELs.  Demonstrate and practice highlighting techniques so that ELs learn how to highlight important information. How can you DI During the Lesson? Make a list at your tables. Have one person from each table share their group work with the overall group. Compare our list on the projector to your tables list. How does your list compare to our list? How is your list different? (Remind the teachers that we use these talk strategies to build EL comprehension and critical thinking skills.)

27 During The Lesson Review and repeat important concepts and vocabulary.
 Provide real examples and experiences.  Explicitly teach ELs to find definitions for key vocabulary in the text. Help ELs become acquainted with their books. Model your thinking process for students using Think Aloud Strategy. Record important parts of your lesson to reinforce learning. Select different people from around the room to read a bullet (Remind them tht this too is an EL strategy to include reading, speaking, and listening)

28 After The Lesson Allow native English-speaking classmates to make copies of their notes for ELs to use. Watch videos or listen to tapes about a current lesson. Provide follow-up activities that reinforce vocabulary and concepts. Include maps, charts, outlines, graphic organizers, semantic mapping, cloze activities, drawing and labeling, flashcards, games, puzzles, and time lines. Encourage students to work in small groups or pairs so that their native English-speaking peers can reinforce language and specific concepts. Adjust ELs homework assignments to their English language proficiency. Show models of what you expect on their homework responses. Adapt your assessments so that your ELs have an opportunity to show what they have learned. Each person will write two ways to differentiate instruction on separate pieces of paper. Each table will take the slips of papers and roll into a ball. Teachers will toss the ball or “onion” and a different person at their table and peel of one strip of paper to read to the group. (This is called "peel the onion” and can be used as an assessment tool or to reinforce main ideas. Review the After The Lesson DI from the slide.

29 Strategies For Teaching In The Content Areas
Talk to the people at your table and share your feelings about teaching English Learners Ask small groups to share in whole group their feelings.

30 What We’re Going To Do Pick a piece of paper from the cup.
Move to the table that has the color you selected (Red, Blue, Yellow, Green, Purple) Red table = Science Blue table = Social studies Yellow table = Mathematics Green table = Reading Purple table= Writing

31 Job Roles Time Keeper- Keep team on time.
Recorder- Write input from the team. Reporter- Report out to the whole group. Gopher- Get needed supplies. Have each table decide on their job role.

32 What Your Table Will Do Discuss the challenges EL students encounter when learning the content assigned to your groups color (i.e., science, social studies, math, reading, writing) List the challenges ELs encounter on chart paper Discuss content strategies that would be helpful for ELs. List content strategies on chart paper Reporter presents to whole group

33 Science Challenges In some cultures science is based on rote-learning and not hands on learning.  Making predictions and drawing conclusions.  Science vocabulary.  Following multistep directions.  Understanding visuals.  Using lab equipment.  Applying the scientific method. Drawing conclusions and making hypotheses during the discovery process of the lesson. After reporter presents challenges/strategies, review our slides.

34 Science Strategies Give ELs one step directions at a time. Allow them to complete one step. Assess/re-teach and give the next step. In small groups demonstrate Think Aloud while making predictions and drawing conclusions. Pre-teach vocabulary and use pictures to help support the vocabulary. Before the lesson: teach students the names of the lab equipment and make equipment vocabulary cards with the names of the equipment written on the cards and placed next to the object. Explain the use.  In small group model the thinking process for drawing conclusions and making hypotheses. Ask guiding questions while avoiding yes/no questions.  Place ELs in cooperative learning groups so they can hear other students’ ideas and reasoning. Allow ELs to work with many different groups. Review

35 Social Studies Challenges
Facts are not relevant to the student. No background knowledge to understand new concept.  Uses high-level thinking skills for reading and writing.  Reading text contains complex sentences, passive voice, and multiple pronouns. Taking notes. Comprehending large blocks of text during class. Deciphering what is important in the text.  Accessing background knowledge.  Understanding nationalistic or culturally focused maps.  Recognizing the proper names of countries, cities, and oceans that are not the same as they have learned in their country.  Understanding the passive voice in English texts. After reporter presents social studies challenges/strategies, review our slides.

36 Social Studies Strategies
Find similar ideas of the topic and link to student’s culture and history. Provide opportunities through role playing so students can feel the experience.  Use non fiction books related to the topic that is at the ELs reading and comprehension level. Use graphic organizers to help students’ record facts and organize information. Decide what is most important for the student to learn and write this on paper for the student. Use simple sentences and vocabulary at the students’ level of comprehension. Use videos to help with comprehension. Pre-teach vocabulary and have pictures to match the vocabulary words. Teach lessons on how to find important facts and information from the textbook. Review

37 Mathematic Challenges
Students with low reading comprehension skills will struggle in math.  Mental math is the norm in many cultures. Students have difficulty explaining how they arrived at an answer.  In many cultures math concepts are not taught over a period of time. For example, students might have no prior exposure to estimation, rounding, or geometry.  Numbers and problems are sometimes formed or written differently. In the U.S. we use decimals to separate the dollars and cents. In South America they use a comma to mark this distinction.  Using the U.S. measurement system and Fahrenheit.  Using math manipulatives. ELs can view this as play.  Understanding time on a 12-hour clock. Many cultures us a 24 hour clock.  Understanding math vocabulary. A huge problem. After reporter presents mathematics challenges/strategies, review our slides.

38 Mathematic Strategies
Pre-teach vocabulary and use visuals for clarification. Assess students through questioning to make certain they understand the process. Never use yes/no questions.  Explicitly teach how to solve problems and demonstrate how to show your work. Model and use Think Aloud and Questioning strategies.  Show students how to properly use math manipulatives and let them know it is not meant for play.  Know your students culture and be prepared to provide lessons on the U.S. measurement system etc. Give students suggestions on how to help them express their ideas. Review

39 Reading Challenges Comprehending the meaning of a text.
Comprehending a text that contains a large number of unknown words. Understanding text that includes idioms, homophones / homonyms, and synonyms.  Deciphering regional U.S. dialects.  Understanding the cultural background depicted in a literacy piece.  Recognizing correlation between letters and sounds. After reporter presents reading challenges/strategies, review our slides.

40 Reading Strategies Help ELs build background knowledge before reading.
Provide student experiences. Show videos. Teach unfamiliar vocabulary before presenting a new concept. Use pictures and realia.  In small group tell ELs about the story before its read. Act out the story. If using a textbook, highlight the most important facts you want the ELs to learn. Review

41 Writing Challenges ELs have a limited vocabulary and are reluctant to use inventive spelling.  They use verb tenses inaccurately and often usually write in the present tense.  Some ELs have not internalized the sentence structure of English grammar.  Some students are reluctant to share their work during peer editing. When they do, they prefer working with same language peers who may not provide appropriate feedback.  ELs don’t have a sense of what sounds right when they read their writing aloud.  In many cultures, students are not encouraged to express their opinions. ELs may have little experience with creative writing in their native language. After reporter presents writing challenges/strategies, review our slides.

42 Writing Strategies Teach nonfiction reading and writing. ELs can easily access facts and language chunks that they can use in their writing. Spend more time helping ELs in the prewriting stage. Generate oral sentences and make a chart of facts a nonfiction topic. This helps them learn to speak the words they are going to write. Use graphic organizers to help students gather facts. Create a web to help students learn how to organize information. Have students practice writing from the web. Model repeatedly. In small group with teacher, help students brainstorm vocabulary and themes. Don’t expect ELs to edit their work because they usually don’t find their mistakes. Pick out one skill for them to edit, provide a mini lesson for this skill, and group EL with a partner to edit this skill. Show ELs models of good writing at their language level. If student is learning how to write an opening paragraph let them see several pieces of good work. Give students real writing situations such as letters, invitations, postcards, lists, and classmate interviews. Review

43 What Do You Know About Assessing ELs? Turn and Tell
Whole group shares

44 Assessing Entering Stage: For students who have attended a U. S
Assessing Entering Stage: For students who have attended a U.S. school one year or less.   Ask beginning students to answer yes/no or either/or questions. One or two word responses should be accepted.  Allow early elementary students to point to or circle the correct picture in response to the teacher’s question.  Have students point, gesture, or act out key vocabulary and concepts from a science or social studies unit.  Provide cloze activities using sentences from the text for student evaluation.  Supply a word bank so that students do not have to generate English vocabulary. For example, students can label a map or fill in a chart using a word bank to demonstrate their understanding of the 13 original colonies.  Use visuals or realia to elicit information. For example, teacher can display pictures of the jobs early English settlers had to do to survive and then ask students to discuss those jobs. At your tables, compose a list of ways you would assess an EL in the Entering stages of language development. Compare your ideas with ours.

45 Assessing Entering Stage Continued
Give students yes or no items on a list. For example, during a science lesson, allow students to signal yes or no when asked whether certain animals are mammals. Use hands on tasks such as drawings, graphs, maps, and charts to demonstrate comprehension. For example, in science allow student to draw the stages of the life cycle of a frog or the water cycle to demonstrate comprehension. Encourage students to complete class projects in cooperative groups and grade ELs on their participation in the group. Use a K-W-L chart to record student progress. Ask beginners to complete the “What I learned” section using pictures. Use portfolio assessments to evaluate students’ writing and oral language. Tape your ELs’ oral language on a regular basis and keep a file of their writing to measure their growth. Review

46 Assessing Advanced Beginners to Intermediate ELs For students with a basic vocabulary of 3000 words. Most can ask questions about the material they studied. Have students role play to show their understanding of a topic. Group ELs with native English speakers. For example, students can act out the conditions on the Mayflower or the hardships of the first winter in Plymouth. Allow students to show their comprehension of a book by participating in role playing, making a cover, or designing a bookmark instead of writing a book report. Encourage students to complete a graphic organizer using the concept or vocabulary to be evaluated. Provide simplified study guides and limit assessment to key vocabulary and concepts covered in this guide. Divide the room in half Select one person from each side to record information on chart paper. Give each side 5 minutes to quickly come up with ways to assess advanced to intermediate Els. Record on chart paper Each side will compare their results together. Show our slides and emphasize new additions not mentioned in whole group. Review

47 Assessing Advanced Beginners to Intermediate ELs Continued
Allow ELs to consult their books or notes during a test. Allow students to take their test in the ESL classroom. Allow students to answer essay questions orally. Have students compare and contrast concepts that were previously taught in class. Use a completed graphic organizer to review information in class. Have students study the organizer at home before the assessment. Review

48 Assessing Advanced Beginners to Intermediate ELs Continued
Have students fill in a modified outline, story web, chart, graph, or time line. Provide some of the answers and have students fill in what is missing. Include larger type and more white space. Use a dialogue journal to discuss specific topics with students. Have ELs respond to a particular question in the journal. Simplify essay questions or break them into manageable parts. Read questions allowed and modify questions. Review

49 Review For The Day Form concentric circles
People on the inside of the table will be the listeners. People on the outside of the table facing the inner person will do the talk. Share what you have learned for the day. Swap roles of listener vs. speaker and share what you have learned for the day.

50 SAMUEL References Myths and Realities, Best Practices for Language Minority Students,by Katharine Davies Samway and Denise McKeon Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners by Jana Echevarria, MaryEllen Voght, and Deborah J. Short Classroom Instruction that Works with English Language Learners by Jane D. Hill, and Kathleen M. Flynn

51 Contact Information Heidi Goertzen– Title III/ESL Specialist Dely V. Roberts – Title III/ESL Specialist Dr. Tammy Hallman Starnes– Title III/ESL Coordinator 5348 Gordon Persons Building--50 North Ripley Street Montgomery, AL

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