Presentation on theme: "1.5 Change & the Management of Change"— Presentation transcript:
11.5 Change & the Management of Change HIGHER LEVEL (HL)
2Introduction to Change & the Management of Change The rate of change is accelerating and no business is immune: there are new markets, new products and services, new production methods, new social values and new technologies.Every change is a challenge to the management of a business.There are thousands of books on change and its management, which clearly reflects a desire by senior management to have some methods to avoid the quicksand of a dynamic business environment.
3Causes of ChangeWhere does the impetus for organizational change come from?The simple answer is that drivers for change come from both from the internal and external environment.Effective managers understand that change in the strategic environment is a continuous process and that successful businesses are those than anticipate and plan for change.Therefore, managing change is about the long term survival of the business.
4Causes of ChangeOrganizational change is especially necessary when external environments are uncertain, complex, and dynamic.Significant and or rapid change may require an organization to reconsider its structure, purpose, mission and culture.The implementation of strategic change is clearly a period of significant danger for any business.
5EXTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE The external environment is in a state of constant flux.External factors driving change include:GlobalizationNew TechnologiesDemographic ChangesSocial & Cultural ChangeChanges in LegislationEconomic TrendsCompetition
6EXTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE Globalization Globalization brings significant opportunities in terms of larger markets and growth possibilities.Global markets are converging, offering organizations the opportunity to produce standardized products and to benefit from economies of scale.However, globalization also brings threats from greater international competition, and affects the range of goods and services that must be offered.
7EXTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE Globalization Different nationalities and cultures will have different tastes, preferences and buying habits.Businesses will have be increasingly aware of, and responsive to, the growing and evolving needs of emerging economies, such as China, India an the countries of Eastern Europe.
8EXTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE Globalization ChallengesMNCs are faced with a wider range of HR issues, including differences in the skills, attitudes and needs of their workforces worldwide.As a business grows internationally there are more communication problems and it is difficult to maintain a common purpose.The challenge of expansion has intensified as more business functions are outsourced often overseas.
9EXTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE New Technologies The rate of technological change is accelerating as new technologies emerge and computer power and speed increases exponentially.In organizational terms, the introduction of new technologies has allowed increasing decentralization and downsizing, with power shifting away from the centre to the local or regional offices.As a result organizational structures have flattened requiring employees to develop new skills and take on extra responsibilities.The outcome is that power often shifts from centralized functions to local operating units, challenging the management function as well.Technological change affects all business functions from marketing to production.
10EXTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE Demographic Change Changes in the size and structure of the population affect a business in two significant ways – the nature and needs of employees change as do the needs and wants of consumers.Most developed countries are facing up to an ageing population, which may cause skill shortages.This requires changes to recruitment, training and retention policies.Working patterns are being reassessed and, as consequence, more flexible working practices are being introduced.Demographic changes affect consumption patterns and purchase behaviour. This is already noticeable in growing markets catering for older age groups.
11EXTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE Social & Cultural Change Over time, consumer behaviour attitudes and expectations change.For instance, in most developed countries the majority of women have jobsIncreased migration also changes the social and cultural mix of a country and the nature of demand.Fusions of different cultures, religions and ethnic groups provide new market opportunities. This is noticeable in the food, entertainment and clothing sectors.
12EXTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE Change in Legislation Government legislation can force changes in business practice and activity.In many countries laws on health and safety, working hours and discrimination have effected both working conditions and nature of the workplace.Consumer protection laws can force business to change the way they market and sell their products or services.
13EXTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE Economic Trends Changes in the economic cycle will have significant effects on business activity.As organizations and countries have become more interdependent, crisis like the US “credit crunch” in 2008 have had global effect, causing worldwide recession.
14EXTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE Competition In highly competitive markets, innovation and change initiated by one business will trigger a response from the competition to protect market share.Eg In the game console market, each manufacturer attempts to gain competitive advantage over it rivals by frequently upgrading the functionality of its products.Additions like broadband access, Blue-ray disc players, wireless controllers and portable models force other manufactures to introduce updated models with similar, or improved, features.
15INTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE The internal resources of a business areconstantly changing and management will needto respond to these. Internal factors drivingchange include:Changes in Human Resources and skill levelsNew Management approachesChanges in Employee’s expectations, motivation and behaviour.New Product DevelopmentFinancial Requirements & Availability of Funds
16INTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE New Management Approaches The turnover of senior managers in most business fields is becoming more rapid.The desire for quick success is encouraging businesses to consider changing their management teams rather than waiting for improvements.This is particularly evident in sport, which has become “big business”.Eg: Soccer Club directors see managers as expendable and in times of failure prefer to sack their off-field staff rather than the players, who are perhaps scarcer in supply.
17INTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE Changes in employees, expectations, motivation and behaviour In most organizations, the “job for life” is gone.Very few organizations reward loyalty and, in return, employees are more fickle, moving between jobs more quickly and staying in positions for shorter periods.In economic boom periods, the bargaining position of skilled employees is stronger and managers will have to review and modify remuneration packages more often to retain their better staff.
18INTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE New Product Development The introduction of new products and services will require changes in the nature or an organizations production and marketing approaches.New products may require increased automation of production and new services may require different ways of selling.The target markets for new products may not be the same.
19INTERNAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE Financial Requirements & Availability of Funds Changes in goods and services will require additional investment and cash flow that a business may not have.Businesses will have to raise new funds through loans, share issues or integration with other organizations.
20RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Individuals react very differently to change. Some people embrace change as it provides variety, opportunity and excitement.As the pace of social and economic change has accelerated it has become an accepted part of many working environments.However, there are individuals who fear change and resist it.This may be a rational reaction, because change can have negative consequences even if its beneficial for the organization.
21RESISTANCE TO CHANGEChange may involve higher workloads and longer hours, relocation, the breaking up of working groups and possible redundancy.Periods of stability create a sense of familiarity and therefore a feeling of security.When employees are confronted with change, that is perceived as being “enforced” they can become emotional.
22Why do employees resist change? Personal Reasons Fear of the unknownA Risk-Adverse personality.Dislike of the person making the change or supicion of the motives.Lack of skills to cope with new demands.Proposed changes to working hours that to lead to a reduction in personal flexibility.
23Why do employees resist change? Explanation & Communication Explanation and communication of change canLead to people resisting change, for examplewhen:The justification of the change is unclearThe value of the change to the stakeholder is not identified and communicated in a simple manner.The stakeholder is not involved in the decision making process.
24Why do employees resist change? Social Aspects Concerns that the change breaks up existing teams and friendship groups.Lack of confidence dealing with new colleagues and systems.
25Why do employees resist change? Financial Reasons Fear of redundancy or worse payment terms, eg: less chance of overtime.Possible additional costs, for example relocation and transport or childcare.
26FORCE FIELD ANALYSISIn 1969, Kurt Lewin developed force field analysis, a graphical tool that can guide change and help identify priorities for action.Individuals or teams can use this tool.Lewin identified what he called a “problem situation” where there is a difference between the way things are and the way the organization wants them to be.The principle of force field analysis is that at any given time a problem situation may exist, because counterbalancing forces are keeping it that way.These are:driving forces for changesrestraining forces for change.
27FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS Driving Forces for Change Forces that initiate a change and keep it going, eg: new competition, cash flow crisis, rising costs.Restraining Forces for ChangeForces that decrease the driving forces, for example apathy, lack of finance, or poor motivation.
28FORCE FIELD ANALYSISForces does not imply physical pressure, but refers to the broad range of internal and external influences at a particular time.Equilibrium is reached when the sum of the driving forces equals the sum of the restraining forces.In essence, the technique is a specialized method of weighing pros and cons.By carrying out the analysis in a meeting or a series of meetings, the team leading change identifies factors driving and restraining change and rates the importance of each.
29FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS Drawing the Force Field Diagram To support the analysis, a force field diagram is drawn with a line representing each change force.The change force is then given a weighting to show how important it is.This is done by simply placing a number next to the force or by varying the length of each line with its perceived importance; more important being longer.
30DiagramAnalysisIn this diagram the restraining forces are stronger in total, so there would be no change unless restraining forces could be reduced or driving forces increased. This means that a manager desiring change has to increase the drivers or reduce the registers to change.
31FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS Purpose of the Force Field Diagram The force field diagram helps the decision maker to weigh the importance of change factors and decide whether a plan is worth implementing by:investigating the balance of power involved in an issue.identifying the key individuals affected by the changeidentifying supporters and opponents of change.examining how to strengthen forces supporting a decision, while reducing the impact of opposition.
32FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS How to increase the drivers of change? One potential method to increase the drivers of change is to push the change by autocratic leadership.However, this may only lead to an acceptance of change in the short term.In the long run autocratic leadership may lower motivation and productivity and increase staff turnover.A better alternative could be to reduce opposition to change by offering additional incentives or by better communication of the benefits of the change.
34THE CHANGING PRIORITIES OF BUSINESS Modern businesses are responding to change in the external and internal environment by examining and changing some of the fundamentals of their operations, leading to change priorities.Market ResearchIt is becoming more important to carry out market research to identify changing trends that will impact on the business and its products or services.
35THE CHANGING PRIORITIES OF BUSINESS Quality IssuesThere is increasingly emphasis on quality as a method of creating competitive advantage or maintaining a position in a market.Quality assurance at all levels and benchmarking against key competitors have become vital to survival.
36THE CHANGING PRIORITIES OF BUSINESS Product Life CyclesProduct Life cycles are getting shorter, requiring greater focus on innovation and R&D and to keep one step ahead of the market. Business wants a first mover advantage.Flexible Workforces & Work PracticesFlexible workforces and working practices are being created.This has an impact on recruitment and training.More part time and temporary staff are also a key feature.
37MANAGING CHANGEMost organizations work in situations where the plan, implement and manage change in a fast-moving environment.Excellent leadership is about understanding when environmental change requires organizational change and when it doesn’t.
38Three Key Questions Associated with Business Change Is the change anticipated or unanticipated?Have managers planned for change?To what extent is the change controllable by the business?
39Anticipated ChangeIf change is anticipated it can be planned for, making management of the process more effective.Organizations can then produce corporate plans and budgets to support the changes and individual employees know their role in the process.
40Unanticipated ChangeUnanticipated change can be disruptive to the business and result in change leading the business, rather than the business initiating change.At worst, the business may move into a period of crisis management.
41Key Elements for Successful Change Management Management theorists such as Mintzberg and Peters have explored planning issues in dynamic markets.Their belief is that the formalized planning approaches used in the past have little benefit in modern markets, where change can make the best-laid plans obsolete.Mintzberg has talked about strategy that emerges from constant evaluation of the external environment
42Key Elements for Successful Change Management: Planning in a Broad Sense not a Meticulous PlanOnly planning in a broad sense for the long-run.Managers should prepare a strategic vision, not a meticulous plan.In fast-moving environments, detailed five year plans are out of date almost as soon as they are written.Organizations should focus more on establishing and measuring immediate actions, rather than preparing detailed medium term to long term plans.
43Key Elements for Successful Change Management: Communication for Quick Decision MakingDeveloping channels of communication that allow immediate review and quick decision making.Those directly affected by the decisions must be part of the decision-making process, enabling their input to be gained, their approval obtained and their commitment secured.
44Key Elements for Successful Change Management: Power to Managers at the Local LevelDelegating responsibility and power to managers operating at a local level.By empowering local teams, decisions can be made that address local issues and are far more immediate.Managers Open to ChangeCreating a climate that embraces change by appointing managers who are open to new and creative solutions.
45Key Elements for Successful Change Management: Whenever an organization imposes new things on people, there will always be difficulties.Participation, involvement and open, early, full communication are vital factors when introducing change.Change management entails thoughtful planning and sensitive implementation and extensive consultation with the people affected by the changes.If change is forced on people, problems frequently arise.
46Key Elements for Successful Change Management Change must be realistic, achievable and measurable.
47Three Key Questions to consider before starting the change process: What do we want to achieve with this change and how will we know that the change has been achieved?Who is affected by this change and how will they react to it?How much of this change can be achieved by the organizational itself, and what parts of the change will require external help?
48JOHN KOTTERS’S MODEL FOR UNDERSTANDING & MANAGING CHANGE There are eight key steps:Increase UrgencyInspire people to move. Make objective real and relevant.2. Build the Guiding TeamGet the right people in place with the right emotional commitment, and the right mix of skills and skill levels.
49JOHN KOTTERS’S MODEL FOR UNDERSTANDING & MANAGING CHANGE Get the Vision RightGet the team to establish a simple vision and strategy. Focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to elicit the change.Communicate for buy-inInvolve as many people as possible, communicate the essentials, simply and appeal and respond to people’s needs.
50JOHN KOTTERS’S MODEL FOR UNDERSTANDING & MANAGING CHANGE Empower ActionRemove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders – reward and recognize progress and achievements.Create Short Term WinsSet Aims that are easy to achieve in bit size chunks. Have manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones.
51JOHN KOTTERS’S MODEL FOR UNDERSTANDING & MANAGING CHANGE Don’t let upFoster and encourage determination and persistence about ongoing change, encourage ongoing progress reporting, highlight achievements and future milestones.Make change stickReinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion and new change leaders.Weave change into culture.
53Take the Online Quiz If this does not work go to: www.proprofs.com Click on the following link or copy and paste to web:If this does not work go to:From here enter the website and locate the search for quizzes box at the top of the page. Type in:change and the management of change.