What is E-text? electronic text or e-text has become a preferred format for many students and an essential format for most students with print disabilities.
Why read E-text? You can –re-size –highlight –change the fonts, –colors, –change from one language to another; –transform into synthetic speech –change to MP3
Where can you find E-text? ARC-BC Bookstacks GetFreeBooks.com Kurzweil Classic Literature CD Librivox Manybooks.net Project Gutenburg Questia ….and more
What about copyright and E-text? The Canadian Copyright Act (CCA) Section 32(1) outlines, very specifically, the acceptable creation and use of alternate format materials for individuals with disabilities. In simple terms, the act allows for an individual with a perceptual disability, or an agent acting on behalf of that individual, to create, acquire, or use an alternate format of a copyrighted work as long as that alternate format is not large print or is not commercially available. The act further defines ‘perceptual disability’ as one that prevents or inhibits access to standard print materials due to a visual impairment, a physical disability or a comprehension disability. (ARC-BC Website)
What is public domain? Alternate formats of works in the public domain (i.e. not copyrighted) can be created and distributed freely but credits to the original author and/or publisher should always be included in any materials (ARC- BC Website)
What reading strategies do you use? Swiss Army Knife Effect There are many strategies. Pick the ones that are right for your students There are no right or wrong strategies Strategies will vary from book to book and student to student
This PowerPoint is a Compilation of Pre-Reading and Guided Reading Strategies from a variety of sources Terence Cavanaugh Karen Erickson and David Koppenhaver Adrienne Gear Suzanne Manz L. Oczuks Taffy E. Raphael Dawn Reithaug Read-Write-Think Reading 44 Joan Sedita Cris Tovanni Jennifer Wagaman…….and many more
Pre-Reading What is the purpose? The purpose of pre-reading is for the student to develop an overall view of reading material and to develop more depth and understanding at the onset of reading
What is the purpose? con’t Have students determine what the primary outcome of reading the text should be to provide information, entertainment or gain an understanding about how something works Remember Establish the purpose for reading and then guide your students to that outcome.
Activating Prior Knowledge Prior knowledge affects how the reader reads and comprehends the text
HIAT Roadmap adapted from HIAT Roadmap – Kurzweil in a One Room Classroom http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_guides/Roadmap_KurzweilintheClassroom.pdfhttp://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_guides/Roadmap_KurzweilintheClassroom.pdf Have digital reading material to support content area Provide opportunities for students to use Kurzweil as an alternate to reading independently Give students at least one period in the computer lab Model good reading strategies for the whole class Roadmap for Learning
What do we know about good readers? Good Readers Think about text Activate background knowledge Make connections with text Take notes Preview vocabulary and structure Make predictions Establish a purpose Generate questions Re-Read text Test their knowledge
What do struggling readers need? knowledge of different types of texts and the best strategies for reading them. multiple and meaningful opportunities to practise reading in subject-specific contexts. opportunities to practise reading with appropriate resources. opportunities to talk about their reading and thinking. background knowledge in subject areas. expanded sight vocabularies and word-solving strategies for reading subject-specific texts. strategies for previewing texts, monitoring their understanding, determining the most important ideas and the relationships among them, remembering what they read, and making connections and inferences. strategies for becoming independent readers in any context. (Think Literacy - Cross Curricular Approaches – Grades 7 – 12)
Activity 1: KWL Chart What do I Know? What do I Want to learn? What did I Learn? Print the KWL to the Kesi Virtual Printer. Discuss with your students how these questions relate to their assignment. This can be done individually or as a small group. Topic KlondikeKWLKlondike
Activity 2: Book Cover Read Title and Author name on the CoverCover Write or record book title and author in a Text Note or a Voice Note Make a prediction Extended Activity – Include a reason why you made prediction
Activity 3: Text Organizer – Table of Contents, Index or Glossary Student opens the Table of Contents and reads the title of the chapter. Using a text or a voice note they make a prediction about what the chapter will be aboutTable of Contents
Activity 4: Word Work/Vocabulary Development Why Build Vocabulary? This strategy is used to enhance students vocabulary and learn how words are used in different contexts. “Vocabulary is the glue that holds stories, ideas and content together…making comprehension accessible for children.” (Rupley, Logan & Nicols. 1998/99)
Activity 4: Word Work/Vocabulary Development “Starting in grade 4, students need to build their vocabulary by approximately 2800 words per year. One of the best ways to achieve this is for teachers to embed both direct and indirect vocabulary instruction into subject lessons….effective vocabulary must be multi-componential”. (Joan Sedita, 2010)
Activity 4: Word Work/Vocabulary Development Direct Instruction Three Activities for Direct Instruction 1. Pick 7–10 key words from text and have7–10 the student highlight and extract words and find a definition for each of the words 2. Pick 7-10 few key words from text and have the student highlight word and extract the words and write a brief story about the words
Activity 4: Word Work/Vocabulary Development Direct Instruction Con’t 3. Pick 7-10 key words from text. Highlight the words and extract to Column Notes. The first column contains the word, the second column the student writes or obtains a definition and in the third column write the page number where they found the word and write a sentence using the word.
Activity 4: Word Work/Vocabulary Development Indirect Instruction Two Activities for Indirect Instruction 1. Student selects examples of new or interesting words from the text and highlights and extracts them. They can look the definition up and write a sentence using the new word.
Activity 4: Word Work/Vocabulary Development Indirect Instruction Con’t 2. Student selects unknown or interesting words and finds a synonym for the word and writes a sentence.
Activity 5: Chapter Summary Why Summarize? Summarizing is extremely important in increasing students’ reading comprehension by helping them construct overall understanding of the text (Oczuks, 2003) Students have difficulty separating the “essential content from the non-essential” (Timmer, S. A. 2004)
Activity 5: Chapter Summary con’t How can I summarize text? You can create a chapter summary using Microsoft Word – Autosummarize feature. Please Note: This only works for expository text because it is formula based. It takes the first sentence of each paragraph as the topic sentence.
Activity 5: Chapter Summary con’t Places where you can find chapter summaries for novels Wiki Summaries Novel Guide Grade Saver Spark Notes Shmoop Book Wolf eNotes CliffNotes etcCliffNotes
Activity 5: Chapter Summary con’t Open Chapter 1 Summary – Print to the Kesi Virtual Printer – Click on the Read button and read summaryChapter 1 Summary
Active and Guided Reading Strategies Strategies for Reading E-text
When students use active or guided reading strategies there are a variety of objectives to achieve while reading.
Objectives of Reading Interact with text and give complete attention to the text Create visual images as they read Makes inferences based on text and prior knowledge Highlight words, sentences, paragraphs and passages Make notes about concepts and ideas Understand characters Answer questions from pre-reading Write about what has been read Predict author’s message Identify point of view Identify ideas expressed as true or false, real or imaginary as they read
Activity 1: Reading Log/Journal Students write a free response (questions, thoughts, ideas, personal experiences etc.) about what they have read. They write for 5 – 10 minutes.
Activity 2: Sticky Notes Why use sticky notes? “On your sticky notes, record any questions or comments that come to your mind as you read, and place the notes next to the related text. On your notes you might argue with the author, highlight a powerful statement, explain theme, summarize, or connect your personal experiences to the text”. (eHow.com)
Activity 2: Sticky Notes Student reads passage and types a question(s), comment(s) or ideas about what they have read onto a sticky note. Where is Puget Sound and San Diego?
Activity 3: One Sentence Summary Why use a one sentence summary? “One-sentence summaries are framed activities that can clearly indicate to teachers the level of their students’ understandings. They prompt students to actively engage with the text in order to complete the brief exercise”. (Santa, C.M., Havens, L.T., Maycumber, E.M. 1998).
Activity 3: One Sentence Summary con’t Student reads to a pre-determined area in the text. While they read they write a list of words that are associated with the reading. When they are finished reading they create one sentence that summarizes the section from their list of words.
Why use highlighting? “Highlighting promotes better reading comprehension. Students who highlight as they read are learning to identify the important points, and are paying close attention to what they are reading so that they highlight the appropriate text. Focusing on the text in this way enables greater learning and deeper comprehension. Highlighting also helps both visual and tactile students remember what they are reading and will aid in studying the text independently”. (Jennifer Wagaman. 2008) Activity 4: Highlighting
Underlining for Critical Reading Highlighting – use one color highlighter – Main idea, topic sentence, full sentences or key ideas or different colored highlighters for different parts of speech, main and supporting ideas, opinions, problems, solutions etc.
Activity 5: Bookmarks Students often need to locate information in text for review in preparation for an oral discussion, test, or activity. A student can use Bookmarks to move quickly throughout a novel or text or locate information on characters, plot, theme etc.Bookmarks
Activity 6: Stop and Predict Why use Stop and Predict? Stop and Predict is great because there “are no value judgments placed on reading at this point in time…Anything goes at this point” (Erickson and Koppenhaver. 2007) When using the stop and predict strategy students are given a predetermined place to stop in the book, chapter, or section. They are then asked to predict what they think will happen next.
Activity 6: Stop and Predict Student reads to the end of the selection and then they make a prediction about what they have read. They can write or record their prediction. You can add a Bubble Note or a Bookmark to show the end of the selection.Bubble NoteBookmark
Activity 7: Question Answer Relationship (QAR) Why use QAR? QAR was developed by Taffy E. Raphael in 1986. It is a strategy used to increase reading comprehension. It helps students realize that the answers they seek are related to the type of question that is asked; it encourages them to be strategic about their search for answers based on an awareness of what different types of questions look for and where the answer will come from (readingquest.org)
Activity 7: Question Answer Relationship (QAR) There are three questions: Right There: The answer is in the text. It is on the page. The words used in the answer are usually found in the same sentence. Think and Search: The answer is in the text but you have to search for it. You have to read between the lines. On My Own: The answer is not in the text. The text got you thinking. The answer is in your head. You use what you already know to answer the questions. Make connections. (Reithaug, D. 2002)
Activity 7: Question Answer Relationship (QAR) Student creates 3 Text Notes or a Sticky Notes at the end of the reading. They write one question per box.Sticky Notes Right There! Think and Search! On My Own! In the Text Box or Sticky Note the student writes an answer to each question. Optional: Share questions with class
Activity 8: Concept Mapping/Webbing/ Brainstorming Student Vertically Tiles text to be read and opens a New document and Vertically Tiles it. In the New document they click on Brainstorm and add a web to the document. They develop the web by finding information related to character, plot, setting, theme, or any ideas or thoughts that they have about the section they have read.text
Activity 9: Story Map Student prints a story map template to the Kesi Virtual Printer and using Text or Voice Notes answer information about parts of the story they have readstory map template
Activity 10: Partner Reading Student is paired with a buddy at the computer. Using headsets with a splitter they read the story or section together. They stop at pre- determined areas that are marked by Bubblenotes, Text, Voice or Sticky Notes to discuss and answer questions or make predictions about the text. Bubblenotes
Other Possible Activities Code the Text – by Tovanni, 2000 The Question Web – Dawn Reithaug – Supporting Adolescent Readers – pg 207 SQ3R Strategies with Kurzweil 3000
Non-Fiction – try T.H.I.E.V.E.S - It is an acronym for title, headings, introduction, every first sentence in a paragraph, visuals and vocabulary, end-of-chapter questions, and summary. Students are guided through a preview of a nonfiction text. After guided practice, partners work together to use the strategy to preview a chapter from a textbook - Suzanne Manz (Read-Write-Think) Other Possible Activities
After Reading Literature Circles – small group of students read same novel and then discuss a previously discussed ‘big idea’ Making Connections – text to self, text to text, and text to world – use sticky notes Demonstrate comprehension through a variety of activities – Sask SchoolsSask Schools 5 Minute Write ….or any of your favourites
RESOURCES Accessible Resource Centre - British Columbia - - http://www.setbc.org/Download/ARC/ARC-BC_Copyright_FAQs.pdfhttp://www.setbc.org/Download/ARC/ARC-BC_Copyright_FAQs.pdf Cavanaugh, Terence, W. 2006. The Digital Reader - Using E- books in K-12 Education pgs. 57 – 70 E-How.com - http://www.ehow.com/how_2131683_improve-reading- comprehension.htmlhttp://www.ehow.com/how_2131683_improve-reading- comprehension.html E-Notes – Call of the Wild – Chapter 1 - http://www.enotes.com/call-wild-text/chapter- i-into-primitive?start=1http://www.enotes.com/call-wild-text/chapter- i-into-primitive?start=1 Erickson, K. & Koppenhaver, D. 2007. Children with Disabilities: Reading the Four- Blocks Way Gradesaver – Chapter 1 – COTW Summary http://www.gradesaver.com/call-of-the- wild/study-guide/section1/http://www.gradesaver.com/call-of-the- wild/study-guide/section1/ HIAT Roadmap – Kurzweil in a One Room Classroom - http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_guides/Roadmap _KurzweilintheClassroom.pdf http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_guides/Roadmap _KurzweilintheClassroom.pdf
RESOURCES Houghton Mifflin Company – KWL Chart - http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/kwl.pdf http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/kwl.pdf Instructional Strategies Online - Story Mapping - http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/storymapping/index.html http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/storymapping/index.html Mans, Suzanne. Read-Write-Think – T.H.I.E.V.E.S. - http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson112/manz.pdf http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson112/manz.pdf Oczuks, L. (2003). Reciprocal teaching at work: Strategies for improving reading comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Reading Quest - http://www.readingquest.org/strat/qar.htmlhttp://www.readingquest.org/strat/qar.html Reithaug, D. 2002. Orchestrating Success in Reading Rupley, Logan & Nicols. 1998/99
RESOURCES Santa, C.M., Havens, L.T., Maycumber, E.M. 1998 – The One Sentence Summary - http://sharepoint.chiles.leon.k12.fl.us/lcsreadingstrategies/main%20i dea%20plot%20and%20purpose/One%20Sentence%20Summary.p df http://sharepoint.chiles.leon.k12.fl.us/lcsreadingstrategies/main%20i dea%20plot%20and%20purpose/One%20Sentence%20Summary.p df Sedita, Joan. 2010. Winter Newsletter. Keys to Literacy. http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs093/1102000925312/archive/11 02928960970.html http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs093/1102000925312/archive/11 02928960970.html Teacherflies.com – Graphic Organizers – Story Map Think Literacy - Cross Curricular Approaches – Grades 7 – 12 Timmer, S. A. 2004
RESOURCES Wagaman, Jennifer. 2008. Highlighting Skills to Improve Comprehension: Teaching Children How to Highlight as They Read http://www.suite101.com/content/teaching-highlighter-skills-a74727
Photos and Clipart Call of the Wild Book Jacket – M. LaFleche Clipart and Photos – Microsoft