Presentation on theme: "Projection Systems: Orthographic and Isometric"— Presentation transcript:
1 Projection Systems: Orthographic and Isometric Engineering Tech GT Engineering Principals & Applications Introduction to Engineering & Technology ConceptsProjection Systems: Orthographic and IsometricObjectives:
2 Objectives Orthographic Projections View Selection Glass Box Approach Line PrecedenceTwo View DrawingsTipsInstructional Objectives:Represent a 3-D objects in 2-D using 3 principal views of an orthographic projectionConclude that a dimension (Wd./Ht./Depth) is shared between two views of an orthographic projectionDevelop orthographic sketches of simple isometric sketches on rectilinear grid sheetProvide tips on making orthographic drawingsQuestions that are not answered by pictorial presentation:Does the hole go all the way through the object?Are there any feature like slots or holes on the back sides of the object?orthographic projection drawings will answer these and other questions. Multi View drawing is one of the most commonly used graphics tool by Engineers.
3 Orthographic Projections Advantage – Represent features of an object more accuratelyExample ProblemInstructional Objectives:Represent a 3-D objects in 2-D using 3 principal views of an orthographic projectionConclude that a dimension (Wd./Ht./Depth) is shared between two views of an orthographic projectionDevelop orthographic sketches of simple isometric sketches on rectilinear grid sheetQuestions that are not answered by pictorial presentation:Does the hole go all the way through the object?Are there any feature like slots or holes on the back sides of the object?orthographic projection drawings will answer these and other questions. Multi View drawing is one of the most commonly used graphics tool by Engineers.
4 Orthographic Projections Orthographic Projections are a collection of 2-D drawings that work together to give an accurate overall representation of an object.By definition for each element of a orthographic projection drawing you only present 2 of the three dimensions. Think of it as an observer look at one face, what do they see.Any orthographic projection drawing normal has three views… Front view, Top view and side view (Right or left side view)
5 Defining the Six Principal Views or Orthographic Views Although any face could be chosen to be the front, once front and two other face are selected all are determined. There are really SIX PRINICPAL VIEWS as defined in the diagram.Generally do not need all six to fully describe the object. A conventional Engineering Drawing will normally have 2 to 3 views unless it required more views to describe the geometry/ profile.We know which ones they are on the drawing, because we always present them in the same relationship to each other. I.e. Top above front, right to right of front, etc. This convention is called as the Third angle method.. The other method in which the views can be placed is the First angle method in which the Top view is below front view, Right side view is on left side of front view. For this class we will be following the Third angle convention.These are often called orthographic projections – because the line of sight is perpendicular to the principal view
6 Which Views to Present? General Guidelines Pick a Front View that is most descriptive of objectNormally the longest dimension is chosen as the width (or depth)Most common combination of views is to use:Front, Top, and Side ViewAny other view different from the Principal Views is called an Auxiliary ViewPick the views which will help in describing the object with highest clarity.Explain what is an auxiliary view. Explain that they are drawn to show specific features that are not clear in the Principal views.
7 The Idea is to have them take an object from the table. Declare front. FRONT View is the MOST DESCRIPTIVE VIEW OF THE OBJECT. The view that gives MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE OBJECT.Rotate 90 degrees “up” to get top view.Rotate Back.Rotate 90 degrees clockwise to get right side.This give three principal views commonly used.
8 Glass Box ApproachMost powerful technique to understand orthographic projectionsSuspend the object with transparent strings inside a glass boxFreeze the view from each direction (each of the six sides of the box) and unfold the boxAnimation illustrates glass-box approachAt this point, give an introduction to Glass-box approach for developing orthographic projection drawings.Student slides contain snapshots of the animation
9 Glass Box Approach Available on the FEH website: Lecture NotesEngineering H191 – Autumn 2005Glass Box AnimationUpon demonstrating the glass-box theory using the software, return to following slideFollowing slides provide snapshots of the demo software
10 Glass Box ApproachThe object, whose orthographic projection needs to be drawn, is enclosed in a glass-box
11 Glass Box ApproachProject points on the front view of the glass-box
12 Glass Box ApproachProject points on the the top view of the glass-box, just as done for front
13 Glass Box ApproachProject points on the right view of the glass-box, just as done for front and top
14 Glass Box ApproachUnfold the glass box, see how the views align
15 Glass Box ApproachUnfold the glass box, see how the views align
16 First and Third Angle Projections First-angle ProjectionInstructor:Third angle projection is normally used in the US while Europe uses the First Angle projection. Note the symbols at the bottom of each one which tell you which projection that you are viewing.These can be confusing to students. We are only highlighting the fact that there are different ways to represent projections. It is not expected for students to fully understand the differences.From Fundamentals of Graphic Communications by Bertoline, McGraw-HillFirst Angle – InternationalThird Angle – U.S.
17 Conventional Orthographic Views HeightDepthWidthFront ViewTop ViewRight Side ViewNote that the views are placed and aligned in the manner shown in the diagram. Remind the students that they have to follow the above convention for all their home work problems and exam problems.It is very important to maintain the alignment and correct placement relative to each other.Means line for top (and bottom) is straight across for both front view and right side view for example.Same thing between front and top for sides.Note : The following can be seen from the slide:Top View and front view have the same widthFront View and Right / Left side view have the same height.The depth of Top view is same as the width of right/ left side view.
18 Is The Orthographic View OK? At this point have the students decide what is wrong and compare notes.
19 Orthographic Must Be In Projection At this point have the students decide what is wrong and compare notes.
20 Hidden and Center Lines Hidden Line – used to represent features that cannot be seen in the current viewCenterlines – used to represent symmetry and to mark the center of circles and the axes of cylinders, and the axes of symmetrical parts, such as cylinders and boltsNote the graphical convention for hidden and centerlines.
21 For Example: 1. Visible 2. Hidden 3. Center From Bertoline: Figure 2.38 / Pg 42In engineering and technical drawing, it is important that hidden features be represented, so that the reader of the drawing can clearly understand the object.Thus we need hidden lines to emphasize that those features exist and are hidden in that particular view.We also need center lines to understand how the features defined in the 2D views translate into 3D.NOTE: It must be emphasized that hidden lines and center lines are used only on Orthographic projection drawings, never on isometric drawingsQ: Do we need a convention for what line to show if two lines fall on top of each other?A: Yes! Otherwise features which are more important (eg: visible lines) would be overridden by less important features (eg: hidden lines) and the resulting drawing would be interpreted inaccurately. The next slide shows the convention followed.2. Hidden3. Center
22 Precedence of Lines Visible lines take precedence over all other lines Hidden lines and cutting plane lines take precedence over center linesCenter lines have lowest precedenceFrom: Bertoline, Figure 2.40/ Pg 43Note the thickness specified for given three types of linesThe precedence of lines governs which lines are drawn when more than one line occupies the same position on a drawing.For example the figure above shows that while a visible line takes precedence over all other lines, hidden line and cutting plane line take precedence over center lines.Standard engineering drawing practices requires the use of standard linetypes, which are called the alphabet of lines. The sizes show the recommended line thicknesses.
23 Example: Application of Precedence Slide rearranged.This slide shows the precedence ofVisible over hidden linesHidden over center lines (Note observation D)Visible over center lines(D) Note that the center lines still show but are drawn away from the hidden line and visible line in the right side view. Remind students that when the draw center lines – The center lines should extend beyond the boundary of the object and also they should leave some space between the boundary and the extended center line --- Refer Label D in above slide.(E) Note gap between body and start of center lines.
24 Intersecting Lines in Orthographic Projections Solid Line IntersectionsDashed Line IntersectionsGapThis slide is from the Technical Graphics notebook, Chapter 3.
25 Two-View DrawingsSome objects can be fully described by two views, look for:Symmetry or Bodies of RotationIn this case the top and the right side views would be the same. Thus a two view sketch captures all the details.The book shows how to draw the sketch, so emphasize having the students going through the explanation given in the text book.Emphasize on the glass box approach and how the alignment of the views is essential.Front ViewRight Side ViewRight SideFront View
26 Other Two-View Examples This can be confusing topic to students. It may be difficult to definitively specify when two views are enough. For this course we should just introduce the concept.These two-view examples show that some symmetrical objects can be fully represented in two views.Things to emphasizeThe center lines in the top view are drawn such that the small dashes cross at the center of the circle and they are separated by some space from the longer dashes.The center lines in the front view shows the centers of the cylindrical bores.
27 Summary Introduced to orthographic projections We recommend the software animation exercise introduced in class. Animation can be found on my website.This slide summarizes about what we have talked about in this basics session.
28 Review QuestionsRectilinear grids are used for sketching isometric pictorials … True/FalseBased on the lines of sight, orthographic projection drawings are classified as ___________ projectionsThere are ____ standard principal views of orthographic projectionsEach view in an orthographic projection concentrates on ____ dimensions of the objectAnswers:False – rectilinear are for orthographic projectionParallel or Orthographic projection6 (However, only 3 are used for representation)2 dimensions
29 Hints for Orthographic Projection Sketching Identify the major features and overall dimensions of the objectDo not use any straight-edge devices as a pencil guide when sketching by handStart by drawing bounding boxes with light construction lines.Keep views aligned while sketchingPlease emphasize these to the students. They are very useful!!
30 Hints for Orthographic Projection Sketching Title Information is required – follow conventionsUsage of construction lines is encouraged.Mandatory for circle or ellipseOrthographic projection:Alignment of the views is important!You will lose points, if not aligned
31 Hints for Orthographic Projection Sketching Map inclined and oblique faces to all three viewsFollow the precedence of linesDarken all visible, hidden, and center lines
32 Sketching a CircleDraw a square whose sides are the diameter of the circle.At the center of each side define the point of tangency for the circle.Draw the diagonals of the square.Orient the paper so you can draw equal arcs to construct the circle