Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Engineering"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fundamentals of Engineering Isometric Pictorials and EllipsesGSMSTObjectives:Sketching and Isometric Pictorials - At the end of the session, students should be able to:Infer that technical drawings are effective tools for communication of technical ideasDifferentiate between multi-view and isometric drawingsDevelop isometric sketches of tangible objects on isometric grid sheet
2 Objectives Projections: The Four Basic Types Creating Isometric sketchesSketching Ellipses
3 Projections: Four Basic Types Note: Isometric is a special case of AxonometricOrthographic ProjectionsAxonometricCourse emphasizes on multi-view (orthographic) and isometric (one type of axonometric pictorial) projections onlyMultiview projections are a collection of 2-D viewsPictorials are 3-DPictorialsObliquePerspective
4 Introduction to Isometric Projection CUBEIsometric Projection:One type of axonometric pictorial (3-D) projection‘Iso-’ means ‘equal‘metric projection’ means ‘a projection to a scaled measure’The three dimensions are not only shown in one view, but also the dimensions can be scaled from this drawingSTART WITH A CUBEAll of the normal drawing planes (top, front, side) are equally foreshortened or tilted, and all of the major axes (X, Y, Z) are at equal rotations from each other (120 degrees apart), as in the illustration above.And, because all of the major planes are equally foreshortened, all of the measurements in these planes are equal as well as shown above. This means that the same measuring scale may be used in drawing both the width, height, and depth of objects.Isometric means equal measureAll planes are equally or proportionately shortened andtiltedAll the major axes (X, Y, Z) are 120 degrees apart
5 Making an Isometric Sketch Defining Axis30o60oIsometric AxisDerive the axes from a vertex of the cube
6 Making an Isometric Sketch Axis ConventionHeightChoose the longest dimension to be the width or the depth for optical stabilityDepthWidthThe above slide is used to indicate the manner in which the width, depth and height of a 3-dimensional object is seen in an Isometric Sketch.Note the assignments of height, width, and depth to the axis.The front view direction is shown. Please emphasize this convention to the students.Front viewIsometric Axis Convention
7 Incorrect orientation Note the alignment of the axes Usage of the Grid PaperExplain the usage of grid paper – (Many student make a mistake in choosing the correct orientation of the grid paper )Instructions on the grid paper used for isometric sketches indicate to turn paper sideways. Students are required to follow that guideline when instructed. This will ensure proper axes conventionsInform students that during the exam the isometric grid given in the question paper is with correct orientation and it is not required to turn the paper for correct orientation of grid.Correct orientationIncorrect orientationNote the alignment of the axes
8 Going From Isometric to Rectilinear See how the face of the cube in the isometric transforms in to the square in the rectilinear grid – The axes that are 60 apart widens in to 90 - hence only 2-axes at a time could be represented in any orthographic projection
9 Object for PracticeHow to derive this object from a rectangular piece of wood?Shape it in to a rectangle with maximum dimensions (so as to fit the required object) on the three axesChisel out the unwanted parts…. Slides follow.NOTE: No scale provided due to lack of measurements of blocks.
10 Making an Isometric Sketch Axis ConventionHeightChoose the longest dimension to be the width (or the depth) for optical stabilityWidthDepthThe above slide is used to indicate the manner in which the width, depth and height of a 3-dimensional object is seen in an Isometric Sketch.Note the assignments of height, width, and depth to the axis.The front view direction is shown. Emphasize this convention to the students.Isometric Axis ConventionFront view1010
11 Blocking in the Object Begin with Front Face Front Face Height Width Identify the size of the front view of the object and sketch its outside dimensions on the Isometric view.
12 Blocking in the Object: Add Side Face HeightDepthSide FaceOnce the front view outside dimensions are added on the isometric sketch, add the side view dimensions.
13 Blocking in the Object: Add Top Face After front and side views are sketched on the isometric drawing, then add the top view.
14 Adding Detail Cut Outs – Part 1 The order of adding the details is important. They build upon each other.
15 Adding Detail Cut Outs – Part 2 Note that lines parallel to axes
16 Adding Detail Cut Outs – Part 3 Note that lines parallel to axes are drawn first, then oblique lines are determined from their intersections.
17 Darken Final Lines - Part 4 Note:All visible edgeswill be darkenedConstruction lines can be left in but must be much lighter than the final lines.
18 Draw the IsometricUse Isometric Grid PaperBlock is 6 x 3 x 3
20 Draw the IsometricAllow the student approximately 10 minutes to work on this in class. The next slide has the solution which can be discussed with the students. The instructor may choose to have volunteers bring their solutions to the front of class to explain prior to showing the solution.The homework for this lecture involves transforming orthographic to isometric drawings. This exercise is to help students understand how to do this.
21 Draw The IsometricThis object can be used to explain how triangular shapes in all three orthographic views result in an oblique surface in the isometric view. It also allow some discussion of the undercut oblique surface producing the hidden line on the orthographic view.
22 Sketching a CircleDraw a square whose sides are the diameter of the circle.At the center of each side define the point of tangency for the circle.Draw the diagonals of the square.Orient the paper so you can draw equal arcs to construct the circle
23 Isometric ellipsesIn an isometric drawing, the object is viewed at an angle, which makes circles appear as ellipses.HolesCylindersExample object – focus on eye piece. Inside (hole) and outside (cylinder) both appear elliptical in this sketch.
24 Ellipses Can be in Any of Three Planes Ellipse could appear in any one of the three planes (front, profile or side, horizontal or top)Major axis (long axis) of the ellipse will be along the long diagonal of the rectangleMinor axis (short axis) along the shorter diagonal.Note ellipse must have the correct orientation in the box. (Almost fills the box, if rotated 90 degrees, it would be incorrect for the plane of view.)
25 Sketching an Isometric of a Hollow Pipe Isometric object without construction linesNote: Student product will have construction lines.
26 Step 1 – Creating the Base Box LengthDiameterRecall that the proper way to start an isometric sketch is to lightly sketch in the box within which the object will fit.Process will fairly closely follow that described in of Bertoline.
27 Step 2 – Ellipse on Front Face - Corner to corner to get centerLines to Tangent Points- Lines to tangent pointsTangent PointsNote for students that just front part of box will be shown to keep it simple in the visuals.Sketch in lines corner to corner (along major and minor axis of ellipse) to get center pointSketch perpendicular lines through center point to get tangent points on outside box.
28 Step 3 – Ellipse on Front Face Sketch in ArcsTangent PointsSketch in smooth arcs to join the Tangent points on Major axis and minor axis. Radius of arc on the longer diagonal is shorter than the radius of arc on the shorter diagonal.
29 Step 3 – Ellipse on Back Face and Profile Repeat for ellipse on rear faceDraw Tangent Lines for ProfileComplete Visible Part of Back EllipseNote that in case on the rear side of the pipe, only a part of the ellipse is visible. So only the part which is visible is drawn with dark lines
30 Step 4 – Ellipse for Hole on Front Face Create Box for HoleSketch EllipseEncourage student to leave in their light construction lines. Constructions lines not shown here to just add focus to what is being added at this step. Note that the construction line should be much lighter and thinner than the main object lines.
31 Isometric of Hollow Pipe Isometric object without construction linesNote: Student product will have construction lines.
32 Summary Technical drawings are an effective communication media Projections of various types can be usedIsometric projections and creating isometric sketches has been introducedAssignments will emphasize simple isometric sketchesSummarize the objectives of the sessionWill introduce more advanced isometrics and orthographics drawing in next class
33 Review Questions_______ sketches present the object in a single view, with all three dimensions represented_______ sketches present the object in a series of projections, each one showing only two of the objects’ three dimensionsWhich among the following is NOT an isometric axes (Hint: Use the Isometric Grid paper for reference)?Note on all REVIEW QUESTIONS slides:Have the students do individually and check with their partner. Will not be graded. This is for better understanding and making the students read the text book. Students could expect such questions in their mid-term and final. Answers will also be posted on WebCT.Answers:Pictorial (Axonometric/Isometric, Perspective, Oblique)Multiview/orthographicc) => spacing between any two axes can be 30, 60, 120, 240 onlya)b)d)c)120°60°240°90°
34 Tips for Drawing Assignments Follow Sketching and Text conventions.Title Information is required. Avoid labels on the sketch.Leave the construction lines – MUCH lighter and thinner than the finished linesInclude centerlines on isometrics
35 Tips for Drawing Assignments Do not try to shade drawing – this is not a pencil sketching class.Use grid paper. Try to sketch along grid lines. Practice sketching straight lines and curves on a grid sheet.
36 Tips for Pictorial Views In pictorial views, hidden lines are not shown unless absolutely required for clarity, such as;Non-visible bottom of a blind holeImportant feature of object not in direct viewIn pictorial views, holes or notches without bottom/end visible should be assumed to go completely through the object.Centerlines are to be shown on all isometric pictorials.
37 In Class AssignmentUse Isometric Sketch Paper (ISP)