Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Tourism. Tourism is a major global Industry. Its contribution to economic development has encouraged countries to pursue this highly dynamic."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Tourism
Tourism is a major global Industry. Its contribution to economic development has encouraged countries to pursue this highly dynamic sector. Its growth has been fueled by several factors such as development in transportation and communication, opening up of barriers and growing demand of people to travel.
According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), the number of international tourists has greatly increased from a mere 25 million in 1950 to 842 million in It is not surprisingly then for tourism to be described as one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena of the past century. However, tourism remains to be a complex phenomenon that has been perceived at different perspectives by different sectors of society.
UN WTO From 25 M in 1950 to 806 M in 2005, averaging 6.5% annual growth rate.
What is Tourism? Tourism has no universal definition until 1993 when the WTO came up with the Recommendations on Tourism Statistics. These recommendations included a definition of tourism, the forms of tourism, and tourists among other tourism statistics that could be used for statistical comparisons among countries. It should be noted, however, that these were merely suggestions and the WTO could not impose on every country to adopt these definitions.
What is Tourism? WTO defines tourism as: comprised of activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.
What is Tourism? Travel is one word that is used interchangeably with tourism. However, not all travels are tourism. Thus, there is a need to differentiate travelers from visitors. Travelers are people on a trip between two or more places, while visitors are people who engage in tourism.
What is Tourism? Visitors are different from other travelers because of the following three criteria: 1.The trip should be a place other than that of the usual environment. 2.The stay in the place visited should not last more than 12 consecutive months. 3.The main purpose of the trip should be other than the exercise of activity remunerated from within the place visited.
Relationship Between Visitors and other Travelers TRAVELERS Included in tourism statistics Not included in tourism statistics VISITORS TOURISTS(1)EXCURSIONISTS (3) -Holidays -Culture -Active sports -Relatives and friends -Others PLEASURE -Meetings -Missions -Convention Professional -Studies -Health -Transit -Others OTHER TOURIST MOTIVES Purpose of visit Non-nationals (Foreigners Nationals, residents abroad Crew members (non-residents) (2) Cruise passengers (4) Day Visitor (5) Crews (6) Border workers Nomads Transit passengers Refugees Members of the armed forces (7) Represent-atives of consulates(7) Diplomats (7) Temporary immigrants Permanent Visitors Source: World Tourism Organization concepts, definitions, and classifications for tourism statistics
1.Visitors who spend at least one night in the country visited. 2.Foreign air or ship crews docked or in layover or who use the accommodation establishments of the country visited. 3.Visitors who do not spend the night in the country visited, although they may visit the country during one day or more and return to their ship or train to sleep. 4.Normally included in the excursionists. Separate classification of these visitors is nevertheless recommended. 5.Visitors who come and leave on the same day. 6.Crews who are not residents of the country visited and who stay in the country for the day. 7.When they travel from their country of origin to the duty station or vice versa (including household servants and dependents accompanying or joining them) 8.Those who do not leave the transit area of the airport or the port. They should be included in the visitors statistics. In certain countries, transit may involve a stay of one day or more.
Types of Visitors: 1.Overnight visitor (tourist) 2.Same-day visitor
Types of Visitors: 1.Overnight visitor (tourist) –refers to a visitor who spends his/her night away from home. 2.Same-day visitor – refers to a visitor who does not spend the night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited.
Visitors are further classified into: 1.International visitor 2.Domestic visitor
Visitors are further classified into: International visitor Refers to any person who travels to a country outside his/her usual environment and other than the one in which he/she his/her usual residence, but for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
Visitors are further classified into: Domestic visitor Refers to any person who travels to a place other than of his/her usual environment but still within his/her country of residence for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
The Tourism System The tourism system is a group of interrelated, interdependent and interacting elements that together form a single structure.
Traveler Generating Regions transit routes Tourist Destination Regions The Geographical Elements of Tourism Source; Weaver and Opperman (2000)
transit routes Traveler Generating Regions Departing Travelers Departing Travelers Tourist Destination Regions Tourists Arriving And Staying The broader environments: physical, cultural, social, Economic, political, technological The Tourism System
Elements of Tourism Tourist The tourist is the actor in this system. Tourism is a very human experience enjoyed, anticipated and remembered by many as one of the most important times of their lives.
Elements of Tourism Traveler-generating region It is the generating market for tourism It provides the push to stimulate and motivate travel. This is where the tourist searches for information, books a trip and departs.
Elements of Tourism Tourist destination region It is the sharp end of tourism. This is where the full impact of tourism is felt, and planning and management strategies are implemented. It is considered the pull to visit destinations, energizing the whole tourism system and creating demand for travel in the generating region.
Elements of Tourism Transit route region Represents the short period of travel to reach the destination and also the intermediate places visited en route.
Elements of Tourism Tourism Industry Described as the range of business and organization involved in delivering the tourism product.
Forms of Tourism Tourism has three forms in relation to a given area (like region, country, group of countries), namely: 1.Domestic Tourism 2.Inbound Tourism 3.Outbound Tourism
Forms of Tourism Domestic Tourism Tourism involving residents of the given area travelling (as visitors) only within that area
Forms of Tourism Inbound Tourism Tourism involving non-residents travelling (as visitors) in the given area.
Forms of Tourism Outbound Tourism Tourism involving residents travelling (as visitors) in an area other than the given area.
In the case where the area is a country, there are three more forms of tourism: 1.Internal Tourism 2.National Tourism 3.International Tourism
Internal Tourism Comprises domestic and inbound tourism
National Tourism Comprises domestic and inbound and outbound tourism
International Tourism Consists of inbound and outbound tourism
National tourism of Country A Domestic tourism Outbound tourism Inbound tourism Internal tourism of Country B Share of Country A in international tourism departures (outbound) and Arrivals (inbound) Destination of Visitors Country A Country A Other Countries Origin of Visitors Other Countries
Can be developed with local products and resources Diversifies the economy Tends to be compatible with other economic activities Spreads development High multiplier impact Increases governmental revenues Benefits of Tourism - Economic Provides employment opportunities Generates foreign exchange Increases Incomes Increases GNP Can be built on existing infrastructure Develops an infrastructure that will also help stimulate local commerce and industry
Broadens educational and cultural horizons Improves quality of life - higher incomes and improved standards of living Justifies environmental protection and improvement Provides tourist and recreational facilities that may be used by a local population Benefits of Tourism - Social
Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition Visitor interest in local culture provides employment for artists, musicians and other performing artists enhancing cultural heritage Breaks down language barriers, sociocultural barriers, class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, and religious barriers Creates a favorable worldwide image for a destination Promotes a global community Promotes international understanding and peace Benefits of Tourism - Cultural
Develops excess demand Results in high leakage Creates difficulties of seasonality Causes inflation Can result in unbalanced economic development Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes Disadvantages of Tourism - Economic