2Tourism is a major global Industry. Its contribution to economic development has encouraged countries to pursue this highly dynamic sector.Its growth has been fueled by several factors such as development in transportation and communication, opening up of barriers and growing demand of people to travel.
3According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), the number of international tourists has greatly increased from a mere 25 million in 1950 to 842 million in It is not surprisingly then for tourism to be described as one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena of the past century. However, tourism remains to be a complex phenomenon that has been perceived at different perspectives by different sectors of society.
4UN WTOFrom 25 M in 1950 to 806 M in 2005, averaging 6.5% annual growth rate.
5What is Tourism?Tourism has no universal definition until 1993 when the WTO came up with the Recommendations on Tourism Statistics.These recommendations included a definition of tourism, the forms of tourism, and tourists among other tourism statistics that could be used for statistical comparisons among countries.It should be noted, however, that these were merely suggestions and the WTO could not impose on every country to adopt these definitions.
6WTO defines tourism as: What is Tourism?WTO defines tourism as:“comprised of activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.”
7What is Tourism?Travel is one word that is used interchangeably with tourism. However, not all travels are tourism. Thus, there is a need to differentiate travelers from visitors.Travelers are people on a trip between two or more places, while visitors are people who engage in tourism.
8What is Tourism?Visitors are different from other travelers because of the following three criteria:The trip should be a place other than that of the usual environment.The stay in the place visited should not last more than 12 consecutive months.The main purpose of the trip should be other than the exercise of activity remunerated from within the place visited.
9Relationship Between Visitors and other Travelers HolidaysCultureActive sportsRelativesand friendsOthersIncluded in tourism statisticsNot included in tourism statisticsPLEASUREVISITORSTOURISTS(1)EXCURSIONISTS (3)MeetingsMissionsConventionProfessionalPurpose of visitStudiesHealthTransitOthersOTHER TOURIST MOTIVESNon-nationals(ForeignersNationals, residents abroadCruise passengers (4)Day Visitor (5)Crews(6)Crew members (non-residents)(2)Members of the armed forces (7)Represent-atives of consulates(7)Diplomats (7)Temporary immigrantsBorder workersNomadsTransit passengersRefugeesPermanent VisitorsSource: World Tourism Organization concepts, definitions, and classifications for tourism statistics
10Visitors who spend at least one night in the country visited. Foreign air or ship crews docked or in layover or who use the accommodation establishments of the country visited.Visitors who do not spend the night in the country visited, although they may visit the country during one day or more and return to their ship or train to sleep.Normally included in the excursionists. Separate classification of these visitors is nevertheless recommended.Visitors who come and leave on the same day.Crews who are not residents of the country visited and who stay in the country for the day.When they travel from their country of origin to the duty station or vice versa (including household servants and dependents accompanying or joining them)Those who do not leave the transit area of the airport or the port. They should be included in the visitors statistics. In certain countries, transit may involve a stay of one day or more.
11Types of Visitors:Overnight visitor (tourist)Same-day visitor
12Types of Visitors:Overnight visitor (tourist) –refers to a visitor who spends his/her night away from home.Same-day visitor – refers to a visitor who does not spend the night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited.
13Visitors are further classified into: International visitorDomestic visitor
14Visitors are further classified into: International visitorRefers to any person who travels to a country outside his/her usual environment and other than the one in which he/she his/her usual residence, but for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
15Visitors are further classified into: Domestic visitorRefers to any person who travels to a place other than of his/her usual environment but still within his/her country of residence for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
16The Tourism SystemThe tourism system is a group of interrelated, interdependent and interacting elements that together form a single structure.
17The Geographical Elements of Tourism Tourist Destination RegionsTraveler Generating RegionstransitroutesSource; Weaver and Opperman (2000)
18The Tourism System transit routes Tourist Destination Traveler Regions DepartingTravelersTouristDestinationRegionsTravelerGeneratingRegionsTouristsArrivingAndStayingroutesDepartingTravelersThe broader environments: physical, cultural, social,Economic, political, technological
19Elements of Tourism Tourist The tourist is the actor in this system. Tourism is a very human experience enjoyed, anticipated and remembered by many as one of the most important times of their lives.
20Elements of Tourism Traveler-generating region It is the generating market for tourismIt provides the “push” to stimulate and motivate travel. This is where the tourist searches for information, books a trip and departs.
21Elements of Tourism Tourist destination region It is the “sharp end” of tourism.This is where the full impact of tourism is felt, and planning and management strategies are implemented.It is considered the “pull” to visit destinations, energizing the whole tourism system and creating demand for travel in the generating region.
22Elements of Tourism Transit route region Represents the short period of travel to reach the destination and also the intermediate places visited en route.
23Elements of Tourism Tourism Industry Described as the range of business and organization involved in delivering the tourism product.
24Forms of TourismTourism has three forms in relation to a given area (like region, country, group of countries), namely:Domestic TourismInbound TourismOutbound Tourism
25Forms of TourismDomestic Tourism Tourism involving residents of the given area travelling (as visitors) only within that area
26Forms of TourismInbound Tourism Tourism involving non-residents travelling (as visitors) in the given area.
27Forms of TourismOutbound Tourism Tourism involving residents travelling (as visitors) in an area other than the given area.
28In the case where the area is a country, there are three more forms of tourism: Internal TourismNational TourismInternational Tourism
29Internal Tourism Comprises domestic and inbound tourism
30National Tourism Comprises domestic and inbound and outbound tourism
31International Tourism Consists of inbound and outbound tourism
32Destination of Visitors CountryAOtherCountriesNational tourism of Country AOrigin of VisitorsCountryADomestictourismOutbound tourismInbound tourismOtherCountriesShare of Country A in international tourism departures (outbound) and Arrivals (inbound)Internal tourism of Country B
33Benefits of Tourism - Economic Provides employment opportunitiesGenerates foreign exchangeIncreases IncomesIncreases GNPCan be built on existing infrastructureDevelops an infrastructure that will also help stimulate local commerce and industryCan be developed with local products and resourcesDiversifies the economyTends to be compatible with other economic activitiesSpreads developmentHigh multiplier impactIncreases governmental revenues
34Benefits of Tourism - Social Broadens educational and cultural horizonsImproves quality of life - higher incomes and improved standards of livingJustifies environmental protection and improvementProvides tourist and recreational facilities that may be used by a local population
35Benefits of Tourism - Cultural Reinforces preservation of heritage and traditionVisitor interest in local culture provides employment for artists, musicians and other performing artists enhancing cultural heritageBreaks down language barriers, sociocultural barriers, class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, and religious barriersCreates a favorable worldwide image for a destinationPromotes a global communityPromotes international understanding and peace
36Disadvantages of Tourism - Economic Develops excess demandResults in high leakageCreates difficulties of seasonalityCauses inflationCan result in unbalanced economic developmentIncreases vulnerability to economic and political changes