Learning Objectives Understand what tourism is and its many definitions. Learn the components of tourism and tourism management. Examine the various approaches.
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Presentation on theme: "Learning Objectives Understand what tourism is and its many definitions. Learn the components of tourism and tourism management. Examine the various approaches."— Presentation transcript:
1 Learning ObjectivesUnderstand what tourism is and its many definitions.Learn the components of tourism and tourism management.Examine the various approaches to studying tourism.Appreciate how important this industry is to the economy of the world and of many countries.Know the benefits and costs of tourism.
2 Definition of TourismTourism may be defined as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors.
3 UNWTO Definition of Tourism Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.
4 VisitorA “visitor” is defined as those persons who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence but outside their usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
5 Classification of Travelers (1) Tourists in international technical definitions.(2) Excursionists in international technical definitions.(3) Travelers whose trips are shorter than those that qualify for travel and tourism; e.g., under 50 miles (80 km) from home.(4) Students traveling between home and school only -- other travel of students is within scope of travel and tourism.(5) All persons moving to a new place of residence including all one-way travelers, such as emigrants, immigrants, refugees, domestic migrants, and nomads.
6 NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT The Tourism Phenomenon: Components of tourism and tourism managementNATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTCLIMATEPHSYIOGRAPHYPEOPLEIndustry -- Residents -- VisitorsBUILT ENVIRONMENTINFORMATIONSUPERSTRUCTUREINFRASTRUCTURECULTURETECHNOLOGYGOVERNANCEOPERATING SECTORS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRYTravel TradeSectorAccommodationEvents SectorTransportationAdventure & OutdoorRecreation SectorFood ServicesAttractions SectorEntertainmentTourismServicesCatalyst, Planning, Development, Promotion, and Management OrganizationsPrivate Sector ComponentsPublic Sector ComponentsWorld & National Travel IndustryAssociationsWorld & NationalGovernmentTourism OfficesState and ProvincialLocal & City GovernmentDepartmentsLocal & RegionalTourism Associations/Convention & VisitorBureausTravel IndustrySPIRIT OF HOSPITALITYPhilosophyPolicyVisionStrategyPlanningDevelopmentMarketingStewardshipBehaviorsExperiencesMonitoringEvaluationOrganizationResearchVisitationImpactsTHE PROCESSES, ACTIVITIES, AND OUTCOMES OF TOURISMCAREERS IN TOURISMTHETOURIST
7 Disciplinary inputs to the tourism field SociologyEducationEconomicsHotel and Restaurant AdministrationPsychologyTransportationAnthropologyTourism EducationSociology of TourismEconomicsof TourismHospitalityStudiesTourism MotivationGamingTransportation StudiesHost-Guest RelationshipPolitical ScienceManagementCasinoBusinessPolicy IssuesManagement of Tourism OrganizationsTourism StudiesGeography of TourismGeographyKinesiologySports Tourismand MedicineNew VentureDevelopmentTourism LawEntrepreneurshipHeritage and Environment ManagementLawHistory of TourismLandscapeDesignMarketing of TourismTourism Planning and DevelopmentRecreation ManagementRural TourismEnvironmental StudiesHistoryMarketingArchitectureUrban and Regional PlanningAgricultureParks and RecreationTourism CourseDepartmentor DisciplineSource: adapted from Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Study of Tourism: Choices of Discipline and Approach.
8 Travel and Tourism -- World’s Largest Industry In 2008 it is estimated to account for some:$5.9 trillion of Economic Activity238.3 million jobsIn 2018 it is estimated to account for :$10.9 trillion of Economic Activity296.3 million jobsSource: WTTC
9 Travel and Tourism Can Grow by 4% per year Travel and Tourism will continue to expand faster than the economy as a whole and faster than comparable industries.By 2018 Travel & Tourism is expected to account for:*$10.9 trillion *296.3 million employeesGrowth depends on enlightened government policySource: WTTC
10 World’s Top 5 Tourism Destinations 2006 InternationalTourist ArrivalsRank, (million) % Change Country /051 France2 Spain3 United States4 China ItalyVisit UNWTO’s web site for 2008 figures which are to be available in June 2009Source: UNWTO
11 World’s Top 5 Tourism Earners 2006 InternationalTourism ReceiptsRank, (US$ billion) % Change2006 Country /051 United States2 Spain3 France4 Italy5 ChinaSource: UNWTO
12 Tourism: What it Means to the U.S. Economy Travel spending in U.S. is projected to total $721.9 billion in 2006.Tourism is the nation’s third largest retail industry.Tourism is the nation’s largest service export.Over 7.5 million Americans employed directly in the travel industry, 9 million indirectly for a total of over 16 million jobs.Tourism is the first, second, or third largest employer in 29 states.Tourism provides more than 684,000 executive level positions in each year.Travel industry provides a disproportionate number of jobs for the traditionally disadvantaged.Source: Travel Industry Association of America (TIA)
13 Benefits of Tourism - Economic Provides employment opportunitiesGenerates foreign exchangeIncreases IncomesIncreases GNPCan be built on existing infrastructureDevelops an infrastructure that will also help stimulate local commerce and industryCan be developed with local products and resourcesDiversifies the economyTends to be compatible with other economic activitiesSpreads developmentHigh multiplier impactIncreases governmental revenues
14 Benefits of Tourism - Social Broadens educational and cultural horizonsImproves quality of life - higher incomes and improved standards of livingJustifies environmental protection and improvementProvides tourist and recreational facilities that may be used by a local population
15 Benefits of Tourism - Cultural Reinforces preservation of heritage and traditionVisitor interest in local culture provides employment for artists, musicians and other performing artists enhancing cultural heritageBreaks down language barriers, sociocultural barriers, class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, and religious barriersCreates a favorable worldwide image for a destinationPromotes a global communityPromotes international understanding and peace
16 Disadvantages of Tourism - Economic Develops excess demandResults in high leakageCreates difficulties of seasonalityCauses inflationCan result in unbalanced economic developmentIncreases vulnerability to economic and political changes