Presentation on theme: "Unit A: 1.2 Matter is made of atoms"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit A: 1.2 Matter is made of atoms Identify the smallest particles of matterHow atoms combine into moleculesHow atoms and molecules move
2 Atoms The basic unit of matter All matter made of different types and arrangements of atomsBuilding blocks: atoms are the small parts that make up a larger structure.“Matter is not something that contains atoms. Matter IS atoms.”
3 AtomsExtremely small: take above shape – pretend an atom is blown up to this size, how large would the pin be?It’d cover 90 mi2 (1/7 the area of London; Catalina Island = 76 mi2), 80 miles high (15x Mt. Everest)Too small for a light microscopeSpoonful of water contains 500,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atomsHow to find the mass of an atom?Find the mass of a large amount of a substance and divide it by the number of atoms to estimate the mass of one atomAdd up mass of all atoms in the spoonful of water: m = 5g
5 Mini-lab: How small is an atom? How small is an atom? How small is a cell?Investigate the world of the very small by cutting a 28 centimeter (11 inch) strip of paper in half as many times as you can. If you can cut the strip of paper in half 31 times you will end up with a piece of paper the size of an atom!MATERIALS1 strip of paper 28 centimeters long (11" inches)1 pair of scissorsPROCEDURETake your strip of paper and cut it into equal halves.Cut one of the remaining pieces of paper into equal halves. (# each cut 1, 2, 3, 4…)Continue to cut the strip into equal halves as many times as you can.Make all cuts parallel to the first one.
6 How far did we get? Some comparisons Cut 114.0 cm5.5" (inches)Child's hand, pocketsCut 27.0 cm2.75"Fingers, ears, toesCut 33.5 cm1.38"Watch, mushroom, eyeCut 41.75 cm.69"Keyboard keys, rings, insectsCut 6.44 cm.17"Poppy seedsCut 81 mm.04"Thread. Congratulations if your still in!Cut 10.25 mm.01"Still cutting? Most have quit by nowCut 12.06 mm.002"Microscopic range, human hairCut 14.015 mm.006"Width of paper, microchip componentsCut 181 micron.0004"Water purification openings, bacteriaCut 19.5 micron"Visible light wavesCut 24.015 micron"Electron microscope range, membranesCut 31.0001 micron"The size of an Atom!
7 Is there anything smaller? Yes, an atom’s nucleus is ~41 cuts! Electrons are 9,000 times smaller than this! These things are far beyond the range of sensory perception, but not beyond the range of human understanding.
8 Molecules What makes up substances besides atoms and molecules? Atoms (or combinations of atoms, molecules) are the only matter in a substance…there is empty space between atoms but it is too small to see and has no massWhen two or more atoms bond togetherAtoms can be the same or differentEx: water = 2 hydrogen atoms, 1 oxygen atomEx: hydrogen gas = 2 hydrogen atomsEx: Vitamin E = 29 Carbon, 50 H, 2 OSame atoms, different # = different substanceOxygen (2 O O2) and Ozone (3 O O3)