# STEM ED/CHM Nanotechnology 2007

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How Big is a Nanometer? IBM chipUMass LogoTI mirror array.

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STEM ED/CHM Nanotechnology 2007
Today’s Agenda Nano Size Me How big is a nanometer? Why Size Matters Nanomaterials are different Nano Sunscreen Ultraviolet light and nanoparticles Hands on activities for each

Nano Size Me IBM chip UMass Logo TI mirror array

The Nano Scale Nano materials are typically 1 to 100 nanometers in size 1 nanometer = 1/1,000,000,000 meters How do such materials fit into the overall scale of objects in nature? And how big is a nanometer in terms of something basic?

We’ll use powers of ten Handy way to express very large or very small numbers. Easier than writing lots of zeros! 106 reads 'ten to the 6' is 1 followed by 6 zeros, 1,000,000 is 1.0 with the point moved right by 6 places

Negative powers of 10 10-6 reads 'ten to the minus 6'
is 1 divided by 106 , 1/1,000,000 is 1.0 with the point moved left by six places, 0.000,001

How big is a meter? Width? ~2 meters Height? ~ 1 meter

101 meters = 10 meters Adapted from

100 meter = 1 meter

10-1 meters = 0.1 meters fly

10-2 meters = 0.01m 1 centimeter = 1 cm

10-3 meters = meters 1 millimeter = 1 mm Fly’s eye

10-4 meters = meters Fly’s eye as seen with electron microscope

10-5 meters = meters Red blood cells

10-6 meters = 0.000,001 meters Bacteria

10-7 meters = 0.000,000,1 meters Computer Chip details 10-7 meters

10-8 meters = 0.000,000,01 meters “Quantum corral” of iron atoms on a copper surface

10-9 meters = 0.000,000,001 meters DNA (1 nanometer = 1 nm)
3 nanometers DNA

meters = 0.000,000,000,1 meters Carbon atom, with 6 electrons and a nucleus

10-14 meters = 0.000,000,000,000,01 meters Carbon nucleus,
made up of 6 protons and 6 neutrons

Proton (or neutron) composed of 3 quarks
meters = 0.000,000,000,000,001 meters 1 femtometer = 1 fm Proton (or neutron) composed of 3 quarks

So how big is a nanometer?
Carbon atom diameter ~ m 10 x m = m 1 nanometer ~ 10 atoms wide Nano films are a x 10 atoms in thickness Nano particles are 1 to 100 x 10 atoms in diameter

The Size Me Challenge Each team has an envelope containing
A 3 page list of powers of ten 24 picture cards Place each card next to the appropriate power of ten Size matches will be approximate Some matches will be easy, some will be hard!

That’s if for now …

Approximate sizes 1. Thickness of a penny 1 mm = 10-3 m 2.
Oxygen atom nucleus 1 femtometer = 10-15 m 3. Red blood cell diameter 10 microns = 10-5 m 4. Height of a 5 year old child 1 m

Approximate sizes, 2 5. Proteinase enzyme 10-8 m = 10 nm
(~ 100 atomic diameters) 6. Dust mite 10-4 m (0.1 mm) 7. Wedding ring width 1 cm = 10-2 m 8. Length of amoeba 10-44 m

Approximate sizes, 3 9. Width of electrical outlet cover
10-2 m = 10 cm 10. Diameter of a ribosome 10-8 m (10 nm) 11. Thickness of sewing thread 10-3 m = 1 mm 12. Width of a water molecule 10-9 m = 1 nm

Approximate sizes, 4 13. Width of a bacterium 10-6 m = 1 micron 14.
Length of an apple seed 10-2 m = 1 cm 15. Diameter of a virus 10-7 m = 100 nm 16. Length of a business envelope 10-1 m = 10 cm

Approximate sizes, 5 17. Diameter of a quarter 10-2 m = 1 cm 18.
Length of human muscle cell 10-4 m = 100 microns 19. Diameter of a carbon nanotube 10-8 m = 10 nm 20. Length of a phone book 10-1 m = 10 cm

Approximate sizes, 6 21. Height of an NBA player 100 m = 1 m 22.
Diameter of nitrogen atom 10-10 m 23. Thickness of a staple 10-3 m = 1 mm 24. Wavelength of visible light 10-7 m = 100 nm (Actually, 400 – 700)

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