Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII"— Presentation transcript:

1 Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII
1st World War in history Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII Total war Involved 60 nations and 6 continents

2 Cost of War $400 billion $10 million dollars an hour 16 million deaths
First war of the Industrial Revolution…… New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting

3 world map







10 Trench Warfare

11 Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”



14 The Zeppelin

15 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

16 Poison Gas Machine Gun

17 Countries proud of their heritage and culture
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Nationalism Countries proud of their heritage and culture Similar to patriotism Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.

Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule. franz

19 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia. This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Saravejo alliances1

20 economic and political control over other countries……
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Imperialism France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia economic and political control over other countries…… these countries were in competition for colonies

21 Cartoon-European grab bag
COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900 Cartoon-European grab bag

22 CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Militarism European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world……

23 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia] in millions of dollars. 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73% By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3rd largest naval fleet in the world…. The Great White Fleet

24 CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Alliances European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power …….. Triple Alliance Triple Entente Central Powers Allied Powers Germany Great Britain Austria-Hungary Empire France Bulgaria Russia

25 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI June 28 Assassination at Sarajevo
July 28 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia July 30 Russia began mobilization August 1 Germany declared war on Russia alliances1

26 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI August 3 Germany declared war on France
August 3 Great Britain declared war on Germany August 6 Russia and Austria/Hungary at war. August 12 Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungary alliances2

27 Austrian-Hungarian Empire
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers Central Powers Great Britain Germany Austrian-Hungarian Empire France Russia Turkey Italy


battle fronts German invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France. Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their army Belgium puts up a strong fight. 1st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris. France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918

30 battle fronts

31 STALEMATE AND WARFARE Stalemate Modern Warfare
By September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, a situation in which neither side is able to gain an advantage. When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage. Modern Warfare Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WW I. Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy. As morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.

32 Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. US was officially NEUTRAL
US IN 1914 Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but………… was in Europe. US was officially NEUTRAL

It had the right to trade with the warring nations Warring nations must respect our neutrality in the freedom of the seas German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutrality notes2

34 The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy.
SUBMARINE WARFARE The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy. Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-Boats Germans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.

35 U-Boats Two types small subs with a crew of 24
larger subs with a crew of 60 44 by 1918 By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships.

36 Lusitania ad

37 war zone

38 Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British.
SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”. US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians

39 Lusitania

40 BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” ….
SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA After the sinking of the Lusitania, public opinion of most Americans was to go to war with Germany. Germany promised they would not sink anymore ships unless warning them first and providing safety for civilians. BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” ….

41 ZIMMERMAN NOTE Berlin, January 19, 1917
On the first of February we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with zimmerman notes

42 Zimmerman (Secretary of State)
ZIMMERMAN NOTE with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (Secretary of State) zimmerman notes

43 zimmerman code

44 WILSON'S WAR SPEECH When German submarines sank three American merchant ships in March 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war.

45 April 8, 1917, the US declares war on Germany.
Wilson's War Speech April 8, 1917, the US declares war on Germany. The new German policy has swept every restriction aside. Vessels of every kind….have been ruthlessly sent to the bottom without warning and without thought of help or mercy for those on board….The present German submarine war… a war against all nations….Our motive will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the physical might of the nation, but on the vindication of right, of human right…. We are…..the sincere friends of the German people…..We shall, happily, still have an opportunity to prove that friendship in our daily attitude and actions towards the millions of men and women of

46 Wilson's War Speech German birth and native sympathy who live amongst us and share our life…... There are……many months of fiery trial and sacrifice ahead of us. It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance. But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts……democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own Governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right… shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world safe for democracy.

47 Wilson's War Speech To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured.

48 Principles Fought For The right is more precious than peace
war to end all war The world must be safe for democracy. defend human rights defend our trade neutrality freedom of the seas violation of international law

49 The Yanks Are Coming!

pershing General John J. Pershing, commanding general of the AEF. Referred to as the Doughboys and Yanks. 2 million in France by Sept. 1918

51 Americans in the Trenches

52 Expansion of the Federal Government

53 Council of National Defense
War Industries Board Bernard Baruch Food Administration Herbert Hoover Railroad Administration William McAdoo National War Labor Board William Howard Taft

54 War Industries Board To build weapons for the war, US industry would undergo a massive change. From a peacetime industry to a war time industry….. Led by Bernard Baruch, the WIB set prices and determined what goods should be produced by private industry…. US Govt. controlled the economy Contradiction?

55 War Industries Board

56 US ENTRY INTO WWI Food Administration: Herbert Hoover heads effort to conserve food and boost agricultural output US feeds the world from the farms and ranches in the Great Plains… ”Bread basket of the World” Liberty and victory gardens Meatless and wheatless days

57 U. S. Food Administration

58 National War Garden Commission

59 U. S. School Garden Army

60 U. S. Shipping Board

61 U. S. Fuel Administration

62 Propaganda posters to get Americans to support the war effort.
US ENTRY INTO WWI Committee on Public Information Creel Committee, headed by George Creel, told Americans what the war was about and to publicize the American aims. Propaganda posters to get Americans to support the war effort.

63 Committee on Public Information
presidents actions



66 1917 – Selective Service Act
US ENTRY INTO WWI 1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 2,810,296 drafted and served in WWI 3.7 million men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat) Volunteers and draftees 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

67 US ENTRY INTO WWI congress actions

68 Liberty and victory loans raised $21 billion.
US ENTRY INTO WWI Financing the war: Sale of war bonds. Liberty and victory loans raised $21 billion. Raised income taxes congress actions


70 Attacks on Civil Liberties ( Bill of Rights )

71 National Security vs. Civil Liberties
Espionage Act – 1917 forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military. ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail. fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.

72 Espionage & Sedition Act, 1918
US ENTRY INTO WWI Espionage & Sedition Act, 1918 Provided for up to $10,000 in fines and 20 years in prison for interfering with the war effort or using disloyal language. At least 1,597 persons were arrested, and 41 received prison sentences; newspapers criticizing the government lost mailing privileges. Congress and President Wilson enacted this law to promote patriotism, nationalism and protect the National Security of the US during WWI. congress actions

73 National Security vs. Civil Liberties
Sedition Act – 1918 It was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.

74 Schenk vs. United States, 1919
Schenck v. U.S.: Visual Schenck v. U.S.: Visual Schenck v. U.S.: Visual Schenck v. U.S.: Visual Schenk vs. United States, 1919 In 1917 the United States was at War with Germany. WWI Charles Schenk, a member of the Socialist Party, handed out leaflets condemning the war and urging young men to resist the military draft. He was arrested and convicted for violating the Espionage and Sedition Act of 1917. Schenk took his case to the United States Supreme Court arguing that his constitutional right to freedom of speech had been violated.

75 Issue Can “free speech” be censored or restricted during war time?
Schenk vs. United States, 1919 Issue Can “free speech” be censored or restricted during war time?

76 Majority opinion Schenk vs. United States, 1919
SC ruling: Disagreed with Schenk Majority opinion BUT, every act of speech must be judged according to the circumstances in which it was spoken. The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. "Words can be weapons . . .The question in every case is whether the words used in such circumstances are of such nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has the right to prevent."

77 Schenk vs. United States, 1919
Under normal circumstances, his actions would have been protected by 1st amendment The country was at war, Schenk's freedom of speech was not protected. SC ruling meant there were limits to freedom of speech in war time. From the ruling, the Court established the "clear and present danger" principle to decide whether or not certain kinds of speech are protected.

78 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans
4. Abrams v. US – majority ruling --> cited Holmes’ “Clear and present danger” doctrine Holmes & Brandeis dissented: The best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, denying that a “silly leaflet” published by an “unknown man” constituted such a danger.


80 league cartoon1

81 WOMEN PARTICIPATION league cartoon1

82 WOMEN PARTICIPATION league cartoon1

83 WOMEN PARTICIPATION league cartoon1

84 WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE 19th Amendment: Women’s Suffrage (1920) Women won the right to vote….Called the “Susan B. Anthony” amendment.

85 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION vs Vladamir Lenin Czar Nicholas
Czar Nicholas and the Romanov Family would be overthrown by Lenin who eventually would start the first Communistic state……

Striking workers Terrible loses in WWI Czar was a weak ruler Marxist (communist) propaganda spread by Lenin EFFECTS King overthrown Russia pulls out of the war Russia becomes a communistic country Germany sends Zimmerman Note to Mexico

87 WILSON'S 14 POINTS President Wilson’s 14 Points were his ideas to “end all war”. These are a summary of his ideas for world peace. Are they realistic or based on idealism? Open diplomacy or no secret treaties. Freedom of the seas. Free trade. Countries reduce colonies and weapons International control of colonies….. Formation of new countries with self-government as a goal. (Democracy) A “league of nations” to guarantee peace among nations. (Collective Security) 14 pts

88 Wilson’s Foreign Policy
Wilson was obsessed with establishing a new world order. He believed the US should promote democracy around the world in order to insure peace. Believed that all nations could work together to end war AND, a country’s foreign policy decisions should be based on honesty and unselfishness… Events around the world, however, kept him from ever realizing his dream.

89 LEAGUE OF NATIONS One of Wilson’s ideas, the formation of a League of Nations. The League of Nations was designed to bring the nations of the world together to ensure peace and security. Collective Security of larger nations to keep world peace.

90 troop buildup

91 Wilson Forced to Compromise
TREATY OF VERSAILLES big4 BIG FOUR Wilson Forced to Compromise Although Wilson claimed that he was not interested in the spoils, or rewards, of war, his Allied colleagues were interested in making the Central Powers pay for war damages. Wilson was forced to compromise on his 14 Points so he could negotiate for the League of Nations. David Lloyd George Vitorio Orlando George Clemeneau Woodrow Wilson Great Britain Italy France U.S.

92 TREATY OF VERSAILLES Open diplomacy or no secret treaties.
Freedom of the seas. Removal of tariff and other economic barriers or free trade. Reduction of land and weapons International control of colonies, with self-government as the goal. Self-determination of ethnic groups to decide in which country they wish to live. A “general association of nations” to guarantee peace and the independence of all nations. Not included Germany disarmed and forced to pay reparations of $53 billion Germany looses colonies were given to Allied victors. New countries form democracies based on ethnic groups League of Nations Organization of larger nations to maintain world peace versailles1

93 New Countries Czechoslovakia Austria Hungary Yugoslavia Poland
Lithuania Finland Latvia Estonia Turkey Iraq

94 THE SHOWDOWN Graduate of Harvard President of Princeton Republican
WILSON VS LODGE Graduate of Harvard Republican Believed League of Nations would take away Congress’s power to declare war Made additions to the League of Nations, Wilson would not accept them President of Princeton Democrat Believed in the League of Nations as the only way to end all war Would only accept his ideas and not Congress’s

95 ARTICLE 10 Problems Senator Lodge Had With LON
LEAGUE OF NATIONS ARTICLE 10 The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression, the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled. Problems Senator Lodge Had With LON Power of Congress to declare war Get US involved in a war with no self-interest How would it effect the Monroe Doctrine Policy? Will the LON guarantee a just and lasting peace? Goes against our policy of no “foreign alliances” league

96 LEAGUE OF NATIONS Afghanistan—1934 Luxembourg--1920
Albania—1920 (taken over by Italy Mexico--1930 in 1939) Netherlands Argentina New Zealand Australia Nicaragua (withdrew, 1936) Austria (taken over by Germany Norway In 1938) Panama Belgium Paraguay (withdrew, 1936) Bolivia Persia Brazil (withdrew, 1926) Peru (withdrew,1939) Bulgaria Poland Canada Portugal Chile (withdrew, 1938) Romania (withdrew, 1940) China Siam Colombia Spain (withdrew, 1939) Costa Rica—1920, withdrew, Sweden Cuba Switzerland Czechoslovakia Turkey--1932 Denmark Union of South Africa Dominican Republic— USSR—1934, expelled, 1939 Ecuador— United Kingdom Egypt— Uruguay El Salvador (withdrew, 1937) Venezuela (withdrew, 1938) Estonia— Yugoslavia Ethiopia—1923 Finland—1920 France Germany—1926, withdrew, 1933 Greece Guatemala (withdrew, 1936) Haiti (withdrew, 1942) Honduras, (withdrew, 1936) Hungary—1922, withdrew, 1939 India Iraq—1932 Ireland—1923 Italy (withdrew, 1937) Japan (withdrew, 1933) Latvia—1921 Liberia Lithuania—1921

97 POSTWAR ADJUSTMENTS Return to a peacetime industry and economy
War boosted American economy and industry. United States became a world power, largest creditor and wealthy nation. Soldiers were hero’s but found that jobs were scarce. African American soldiers, despite their service returned to find continued discrimination. The Lost Generation of men who were killed in WWI. US returned to neutrality and isolation. Did not accept the responsibility of a world power that President Wilson believed the US should take on.

Download ppt "Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google