Presentation on theme: "Donna Howell Biology I Blacksburg High School"— Presentation transcript:
1Donna Howell Biology I Blacksburg High School DNA and RNA Chapter 12Donna HowellBiology IBlacksburg High School
2History of DNALate 1800’s – scientists discovered that DNA is in the nucleus of the cell1902 – Walter Sutton proposed that hereditary material resided in the chromosomes in the nucleus1928 – Frederick Griffith found out that hereditary material was transmitted somehow from one organism to another1952 – Hershey and Chase found that DNA was the hereditary substance as opposed to a protein
3Eukaryotic DNA Structure 1950’s – Erwin Chargaff came up with Chargaff’s Rules:A-T are present in same amountsC-G are present in same amountsRemember this rhyme: A to the T and C to the GFranklin and Wilkins produced an x-ray crystallography of a DNA molecule1953 – Watson and Crick proposed that DNA resembles a twisted ladder, and named it a double helix.
4Eukaryotic DNA Structure DNA consists of long strands of nucleotides. A nucleotide contains the following:A sugar (deoxyribose)A phosphate groupA nitrogen base (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine)Nucleotide
5DNA in the NucleusScientists estimate the if you were to stretch the DNA out in each cell into one line, it would measure 3 meters in length!So how is so much DNA packed into one cell?It is supercoiled! The “ladder” is first twisted, then it winds around histones (proteins), then it coils again until it forms the familiar “X” shaped chromosomes.
6DNA Replication When a cell divides, how is more DNA made? DNA makes copies of itself through a process called replication:First, the DNA helix unwinds.Next, enzymes break the hydrogen bonds that hold the base pairs together, sort of like taking a chainsaw and slicing down through the middle of the ladder’s rungs.Then, each strand serves as a template for a new strand. Another enzyme moves along the separated DNA strands, and matches bases from the parent strand to the new complementary strand.Last, hydrogen bonds form between bases, and you have 2 new DNA molecules!Each new DNA molecule has ½ of the original strand, and a new strand, so semiconservative replication.
7The Genetic Code What is a gene? What does a protein do? A region of DNA on a chromosome that controls the production of a protein, of which we have many in our bodies.What does a protein do?Proteins are used in various body functions, and each protein has a specific job in our bodies:Can be enzymes which assist chemical reactionsCan transport substances from one place to anotherAre part of our structural supportCan be hormonesCan be part of the body’s defense against diseaseMany more!Therefore, our bodies must produce many different types of proteins!
8Protein SynthesisProteins are manufactured by our bodies in a process called protein synthesis. It is a two part process that involves RNA and DNA.
9RNA vs. DNA 2 A, T, C, G 1 Ribose A, U, C, G Before we begin this process, let’s review the differences between RNA and DNA:Number of StrandsType of SugarBases PresentDNA2DeoxyriboseA, T, C, GRNA1RiboseA, U, C, G
10Types of RNAAlso before we begin, let’s review the three types of RNA:Messenger RNA (mRNA) – carries the coded instructions for protein synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome in the cytoplasmTransfer RNA (tRNA) – brings the amino acids to the ribosome in the correct order so that they can be built into the new proteinRibosomal RNA (rRNA) – works with several proteins to make up the structure of the ribosomes
11What is a Codon?One last quick review before we delve into protein synthesis: each amino acid is coded for by a sequence of 3 bases called a codon.Each codon produces a specific amino acid, depending on the sequence of the bases.We can figure out which amino acid will be produced by looking at the “codon wheel”.Once you have a bunch of different amino acids produced, they are joined together to form a protein!
12Protein Synthesis: The Process There are two main parts to the process of protein synthesis:Transcription – the process of transferring information from a strand of DNA to a strand of RNA in the nucleus.Translation – the process where ribosomes synthesize proteins with the help of other molecules in the cytoplasm.
13Step 1 - Transcription Occurs in the nucleus Here are the 5 steps involved:The DNA strand in nucleus unwinds and separates.The ½ of the strand that contains the gene for a protein acts as the template.An enzyme matches RNA base pairs with their complementary DNA base pair.The nucleotides of the RNA are bonded together to form a strand of mRNA, which contains the complete genetic code!mRNA leaves the nucleus and moves into the cytoplasm for the second step.
14Step 2 - Translation Occurs in the cytoplasm. Here are the steps involved:The first codon of the mRNA attaches to a ribosomeThen, tRNA molecules, each carrying a specific amino acid, approaches the ribosome.The tRNA with the complementary anticodon pairs with the mRNA codon, joining together.Often, the first codon to be translated is the “start” codon, which tells the whole process to begin.The mRNA then slides along the ribosome to the next codon, and the process is repeated until a “stop” codon is reached.Each amino acid produced is joined with the next one, until you have a long string of amino acids (polypeptide). This is a protein!
15Prokaryotic DNASo now we have talked about eukaryotic DNA. Let’s now concentrate on prokaryotic DNA.Remember that in bacteria, DNA exists in two forms:Chromosome – is a double-helix of DNA in a closed loopPlasmid – a circular piece of DNA separate from the chromosome
16Chromosome Replication Bacterial chromosomes replicate themselves in a process called binary fission.Here’s how it happens:
17Changes in the GenomeThere are many kinds of mutations that can happen in your genes:Point mutationsFrameshift mutationsChromosomal mutations
18Point MutationsPoint mutations are mutations that occur in one point in the DNA.
19Frameshift MutationsFrameshift mutations occur when a nucleotide is added or deleted, causing all nucleotides behind them to be different.
20Chromosomal Mutations Chromosomal mutations are changes in the number or structure of chromosomes.
21Why Are Mutations Important? Some mutations have no effect at all.Some, however, can cause too much or not enough proteins to be formed.Harmful mutations can cause cancer.Mutations are what cause changes in people’s DNA over time.
22Gene RegulationNot all genes we have are expressed, or “turned on,” all of the time.Example: genes that code for liver enzymes are NOT turned on in nerve cells.Each gene is controlled individually.A cell knows to turn a gene on or off by certain regulatory sequences in the DNA that signal the beginning of transcription.