Presentation on theme: "CURRENT ISSUES: CRIME. Factors that Contribute to Lawlessness Lesson Essential Question: How do poverty, drug abuse, and lack of employment/education."— Presentation transcript:
CURRENT ISSUES: CRIME
Factors that Contribute to Lawlessness Lesson Essential Question: How do poverty, drug abuse, and lack of employment/education opportunities contribute to crime? Factor # 1: Poverty: the state or condition of having little or no money, goods, or means of support; condition of being poor; indigence
Persons in Family or Household 48 Contiguous States and D.C.AlaskaHawaii 1$10,210$12,770$11, ,69017,12015, ,17021,47019, ,65025,82023, ,13030,17027, ,61034,52031, ,09038,87035, ,57043,22039,750 For each additional person, add 3,480 4,350 4,000
Interesting Facts about Poverty Forty-six percent of all poor households actually own their own homes. Nearly three-quarters of poor households own a car; 30 percent own two or more cars. Ninety-seven percent of poor households have a color television; over half own two or more color televisions. Seventy-eight percent have a VCR or DVD player; 62 percent have cable or satellite TV reception.
What Causes Poverty? Lack of a job or low number of hours worked: the typical poor family with children is supported by only 800 hours of work during a year: That amounts to 16 hours of work per week. Lack of a male figure in the household: Nearly two- thirds of poor children reside in single-parent homes, usually with an adult female. Lack of education to gain a job with a higher salary, leading to a cycle of poverty among families that is hard to break.
Contributions to Crime, cont. Factor #2: Unemployment: The state of being unemployed, especially involuntarily. What causes unemployment? Lack of available jobs, especially if a person is only trained in one specific area Downshift in the economy. For example: the housing market is slow, so home builders may have less jobs Lack of education to acquire jobs that do exist
CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006
Contributions, cont. Factor #3: Drugs: a habit-forming medicinal or illicit substance, esp. a narcotic Factor # 4: Firearms: A weapon, especially a pistol or rifle, capable of firing a projectile and using an explosive charge as a propellant.
Gun use Lesson Essential Question: What role does the availability of guns play into crime rates? About 18% of all crimes are committed in order to get money to buy drugs About 15% of all crimes are committed while the assailant is under the influence of drugs
Right to bear arms The 2 nd Amendment, ratified in 1791, grants “the right of the people to keep and bear arms” Gun Control Act of 1968: enacted after the assassinations of JFK, MLK, JR., and Robert Kennedy. This act required that better records be kept and defined who was not allowed to own firearms. Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1994: imposed a five day waiting period and background check before purchase of a firearm
Anti-Crime policies Lesson Essential Questions: How is the government fighting crime? What is the difference between a violent and non- violent crime? Which one is more prevalent?
Violent vs. Non-violent Crime A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which the offender uses or threatens to use violent force upon the victim, such as rape and murdercrime A non-violent crime is a crime that does not use violent force upon the victim, such as identity theft or property crimes Non-violent crimes are much more prevalent that violent crimes
Anti-Crime Policies: How the government fights crime Assault Weapons Ban: part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 that detailed the prohibition on the sale to civilians of certain semi-automatic "assault weapons“Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994semi-automaticassault weapons This ban expired in 2004
Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 Outlawed the manufacture of 19 semi-automatic assault weapons Changed the death penalty to cover a broader range of crimes, including death by drive-by shooting and terrorism Also included the Violence against Women Act, which allocated 1.6 billion dollars for prevention and investigating of crimes against women
Juvenile Crimes Lesson Essential Question: How do recent laws pertaining to capital punishment effect the nation’s youth?
Juvenile Crimes Juvenile crimes are usually treated differently than crimes committed by adults and often offenders receive lighter punishments because of their age. However, violent crimes like rape and murder committed by juveniles are being given adult punishments more and more frequently. The debate continues to grow…should juvenile offenders be punished as juveniles or as adults? What do you think?
Eighth Amendment and Capital Punishment The 8 th Amendment of the Constitution states that cruel and unusual punishment shall not be permitted against criminals Several recent laws and high profile court cases have dealt with the Constitutionality of types of punishment, notably Lethal Injection. Capital Punishment: also called the death penalty, is the execution (putting to death) of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offenses
In 2007, 42 persons in 10 States were executed in Texas; 3 each in Alabama and Oklahoma; 2 each in Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee; and 1 each in South Dakota, Georgia, South Carolina, and Arizona. Of persons executed in 2007: were white were black All 42 inmates executed in 2007 were men. Lethal injection was used in 41 executions in 2007; 1 execution was by electrocution
Death Penalty In most places that practice capital punishment today, the death penalty is reserved as punishment for premeditated murder, espionage, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery and sodomy, carry the death penalty.murderespionagetreasonmilitary justicerapeadulterysodomy
Of persons under sentence of death in 2006: -- 1,802 were white -- 1,352 were black were American Indian were Asian were of unknown race. Fifty-four women were under a sentence of death at yearend 2006
Furman vs. Georgia This case is an example of the question of constitutionality of the death penalty. Background: Furman was burglarizing a private home when a family member discovered him. He attempted to flee, and in doing so tripped and fell. The gun that he was carrying went off and killed a resident of the home. He was convicted of murder and sentenced to death.
Furman vs. Georgia The case asked the question: Does the sentencing and carrying out of the death penalty in this type of case violate the 8 th Amendment against cruel and unusual punishment? The Court’s answer: Yes. In over two hundred pages of concurrence and dissents, the justices articulated their views on this controversial subject. Only Justices Brennan and Marshall believed the death penalty to be unconstitutional in all instances. Other concurrences focused on the arbitrary nature with which death sentences have been imposed, often indicating a racial bias against black defendants. The Court's decision forced states and the national legislature to rethink their statutes for capital offenses to assure that the death penalty would not be administered in a capricious or discriminatory manner.