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Presentation on theme: "Criminal Law RESOLUTIONS BETWEEN PEOPLE AND SOCIETY."— Presentation transcript:


2 Criminal Justice System  Who is involved in the criminal justice system?  Police  Lawyers  Judges  State Courts  Federal Courts  Prison systems

3 Types of Crimes  Petty Offenses  Crimes – speeding, littering, or disturbing the peace.  Punishment – Citation, but could lead to a greater charge if the fine is not paid.

4 Types of Crimes  Misdemeanors  Crimes – vandalism, simple assault, petty theft, or writing bad checks.  Punishment – heavier fine or little jail time (usually for one year or less).

5  Felonies  Crimes – burglary, rape, kidnapping, arson, forgery, manslaughter, or murder.  Punishment – jail time, loss of some civil rights, possible loss of employment, and in some cases, death.






11 Criminal Trial Procedure  Police investigation  Police arrest  Prosecution charges the defendant (bail may be granted).  A preliminary hearing or grand jury will be held to determine if there is enough evidence to make a case.  A plea bargain may be reached at this point.  An arraignment is when a judge reads the defendant the formal charges against them. The defendant will state guilty, not guilty, insanity, or no contest.  The trial.  The decision.  The sentence.

12 BAIL : usually 10% of the bail amount set unless:  The judge thinks he's a danger to the community  There's a chance he might flee to avoid trial  He's charged with a serious or violent crime  He's charged with a crime punishable by life in prison or death  He's charged with certain drug related crimes and faces more than 10 years in prison if found guilty  There's reason to believe the accused might attempt to obstruct justice (hide or destroy evidence, for instance), or tamper with witnesses  He's a repeat felony offender

13 Criminal Punishments  Fines  Fines are often assessed in addition to other types of sentencing or for petty offenses.  Individual states determine what fines are consistent with what crimes.

14 Criminal Punishment  Community Service  The defendant is required to perform a specified amount of public works.  This could include collecting trash in the park, working with kid groups, or something that is related to the crime that was committed.  Often, community service is a condition of probation.

15 Criminal Punishment  Restitution and Victim Compensation  In these cases, the defendant is required to pay the victim in the crime for their monetary losses.

16 Criminal Punishment  Split Sentences or Shock Probation  The defendant serves a brief period of time in jail to “shock” them to the realities of criminal behavior.  This is often followed by probation or weekend confinements.  This is often done with younger people convicted of less violent offenses.

17 Criminal Punishment  Probation  The defendant is sentenced to community supervision by a court appointed agency.  The punishment requires the defendant to follow strict rules of conduct in society.  If the rules are broken, the defendant may be incarcerated.  This is the most widely used form of correction today.

18 Criminal Punishment  Incarceration  In the case of felony crimes, confinement is almost a certainty.  Confinement can be in a prison cell or the ankle monitor.  There are 4,200 federal, state, and local prisons in the U.S. today.

19 Criminal Punishment  Death Penalty  The most controversial form of criminal punishment, this sentence is only given to the most heinous of criminals.  Opponents of the death penalty state that taking a life for a life is not humane and is outlawed in the 8 th amendment as cruel and unusual.  Supporters of the death penalty state that the crimes that the defendant committed were beyond human behavior and that there is no point of keeping a person in prison for the remainder of their lives.

20 Deaths by States from 1976- 2005

21 Types of Executions  Four states still allow hanging, but it has to be requested by the condemned.  Three states allow for death by execution, but it also has to be requested.  Four states have the gas chamber in which the accused is enclosed in a room and cyanide gas is released.

22  Since 1976, the vast majority of death-penalty executions in the United States have been by lethal injections. But four states still use, or could use, gas chambers as a method of capital punishment: Arizona, California, Missouri, and Wyoming  As of 2014, the only places in the world which still reserve the electric chair as an option for execution are the U.S. states of Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, Kentucky, and Virginia. (Arkansas and Oklahoma laws provide for its use should lethal injection ever be held to be unconstitutional

23 Other Types of Executions  Five states still institute the electric chair as a means of execution.  The most popular form of execution is lethal injection, in which the accused has several drugs injected into them forcing the heart to stop beating.

24 Last Execution in PA  Pennsylvania uses lethal injection to kill prisoners convicted of a capital crime.  Three people have been executed in PA since 1976.  The last person to be executed was in 1999.  Gary Heidnik

25 Death penalty around the world Country Total executed, 2007-12Total sentenced to death, 2007-12 CHINA THOUSANDS IRAN 1,663156 SAUDI ARABIA 42354 IRAQ 2561,420 UNITED STATES 220504 PAKISTAN 1711,497 YEMEN 152109 KOREA (NORTH) 1050 VIETNAM 58258 LIBYA 39


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