2 Crimes Against peopleIn most instances, crimes can be categorized into three headlines:Crimes against PEOPLECrimes against PROPERTYCrimes against BUSINESS INTERESTSHomicide is the killing of one human being by another.Justifiable Homicidewhen a police officer kills a criminal in the line of duty or in self-defense.Soldier kills an enemy in battleExcusable Homicide when someone is killed by accident.
3 MURDERThe unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought (evil intent)In many states, it is divided into first-degree and second-degreeDiffers from state to stateThe distinction is important because in some states those found guilty of first-degree murder are subject to the death penalty
4 First-degree murder vs. second-degree murder Killing with premeditationKilling in a cruel way (torture)Killing while committing a felony (rape or robbery)If none of the first-degree murder conditions apply
5 ManslaughterThe unlawful killing of another human being without malice or aforethoughtDivided into 2 categoriesVoluntary – occurs when one person intends to kill another but does so suddenly and as the result of great personal distressInvoluntary – occurs when one person, while committing an unlawful or reckless act, unintentionally kills another
6 Assault and Battery Battery Assault Unlawful touching of another person (includes kissing)Usually involves the forceful use of a person’s hand, knife, or gun against anotherGiving poison or drugs to an unsuspecting victimRequires criminal intentAttempt to commit a batteryPointing or shooting a gun at someone is the assault – the bullet striking is the batteryCould be considered a misdemeanor or a felony (aggravated assault)Varies from state to state
7 KidnappingUnlawful removal or restraint of a person against their willUsually includes:Unlawful imprisonment for ransomTerrorismRapeTo commit a felony
8 Sex offenses Forcing someone to have sexual intercourse (rape) Forcing a MINOR to have sexual intercourse (statutory rape)Consent on the minor’s behalf does NOT make the sexual encounter legalA MINOR having sexual relations with another MINORDate rapeSexual assault is a very serious crime and carry serious penalties like LIFE in prison.
9 Domestic ViolenceAny reckless form of physical or mental abuse within a family or householdChildrenSpousesElderly peopleLaws provide punishment for abusers, relocation of mistreated children and shelters for abused and battered spouses
10 Hate Crimes Many states have made it a crime to Use certain symbolsWritingsPicturesSpoken wordsCausing fear or anger in people because ofRaceReligionColorGender
11 Crimes Against Property Crimes against property can be classified as felonies or misdemeanors, depending on the severity of the crime.The most common are:BurglaryRobberyArsonLarcenyEmbezzlement
12 Burglary vs. RobberyBurglaryRobberyThe breaking and entering of a dwelling with the intent to commit a felony or a misdemeanor.If any part of the definition of burglary cannot be proven, the defendant cannot be found guilty.The wrongful taking and carrying away of personal property of another through violence or threatsTaking “from the person” using force, violence or threats
13 Embezzlement and Vandalism The wrongful taking of another’s property by a person who has been entrusted with that propertyEx – Bernie Fine caseWillful or malicious damage to propertyAnyone who supports the crime will be chargedBeing the look-out
14 Arson Defined as the willful and malicious burning of the Dwelling house of anotherBuildingsOther structuresScorching of property is not enoughSome part of the structure must have actually been on fire
15 Motor Vehicle Violations A license is a privilege; NOT a rightMay be suspended temporarily or permanentlyMay be revokedTried in traffic courtDrag racing and joy-riding – illegalAll those who participate can be held liable; not just the driver(s)
16 Crimes involving controlled substances AlcoholDrugsMost commonly used drug in the USLaws to prevent the SALE of alcohol to people under the legal drinking agePunishable by fines and/or imprisonmentPossession, distribution, or sale may violate state and federal lawsThe SALE is considered the most serious offenseGiving them away is illegal
17 Computer crimes Federal Crimes & Laws State Crimes & Computers National Information Infrastructure Act of 1996Outlaws the practice of extorting money or other favors in exchange for not crashing computersThe Computer Fraud & Abuse ActComputer hackersPass their own lawsIllegal to use computers to acquire property, services, or money by fraudTheft of computer servicesDestruction of equipmentMisuse of computer information