Impact of the Spanish-American War Spanish-American War of 1898 –USA declared war on Spain to help the 2 remaining Spanish colonies gain their independence. (Cuba and Puerto Rico) –Also... To protect sugarcane plantations that were owned by American businesses. Results of S-A War –USA won... Spain gave up Cuba and Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico became a US dependency – territory under US control. Cuba became independent but under US control until 1902 –US played a major role in Cuba after its independence. Americans purchased: –Plantations, Sugar Mills, Hotels and Casinos US military stayed on the island - Guantanamo Bay naval base
Cuba after the S-A War For the next 50 years... –Cuba had a series of leaders. –Some leaders were elected others were dictators. The people... –Even though the country was wealthy... Most of the people were extremely poor. –Continually angry with the government. In the late 1950’s... Tried to become a republic by electing a president and representatives. –One of the last elections was to take place in 1952.
Cuban Revolution Fidel Castro vs. Fulgencio Batista in 1952 elections. Free elections did not take place in 1952. –Fulgencio Batista staged a coup d’etat (military takeover) because his chances of winning were slim. –He proclaimed himself as prime minister and ruled Cuba as a dictator for 6 years. »Large amounts of poverty »Poor education and health care Castro (a young lawyer) & his army attacked Cuba in 1953. –By 1959, Castro and his army forced Batista out of office. –Castro named himself as prime minister. –The USA supported Batista during this time.
Aftermath of Revolution Castro promised... –To bring back free elections & a free press –Increase foreign investment –No private businesses would be taken away INSTEAD... –Castro set up a Communist system of government similar to the USSR Government controlled businesses, farms, schools, etc. Anyone who opposed Castro were killed or put in prison –He controlled everything. –Over 2 years, Castro eliminated multiple things. Took land away from foreign investors –Sugar plantations & Cattle ranches Took control of telephone and utility services Banned gambling on the island –All of these things were American owned.
Castro also signed a trade deal with the Soviet Union in 1960. –This trade deal include both weapons and goods. –(Remember... The Cold War was during this period in time.) –The U.S. broke relations with Cuba in January 1961. Due to the harsh conditions and alliance with the USSR 1980... Castro temporarily lifted his ban on people leaving Cuba –More than 125,000 Cubans traveled to Florida in an operation known as the Mariel Boatlift. 1991... USSR collapsed... Cuba lost an important ally and trading partner. –Cuba’s economy suffered when the USSR stopped supporting it. The public’s reaction –Poor people... supported Castro’s policies because he improved health care and education. –Wealthy people... did not like their property being taken from them. Business owners, doctors, teachers, etc. Hundreds of thousands of Cubans fled Cuba because of Castro’s communist policies... Many live in Florida today.
Modern-Day Rebellion in Mexico Who were the Zapatistas? –A rebel group that emerged in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas in 1994. –Native American guerrilla movement rising up against the Mexican government. Guerrilla –a small group of fighters who use surprise attacks to defeat a stronger force. –Called themselves the Zapatista National Liberation Army Named after Emiliano Zapata Indian farmer and hero of the 1910 Mexican Revolution –In the late 20 th century, they were known for harassment and sabotage against the government.
What did the Zapatistas protest against? –They opposed the poverty faced by the Native Americans and other farmers in the Chiapas region of Mexico. (wanted improved rights and living conditions) They began their revolt just hours after NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) was signed on Jan. 1, 1994. NAFTA eliminated the trade barriers and tariffs between the USA, Canada and Mexico. (increase trade between members) Poor Mexican farmers did NOT like NAFTA because cheap corn and other food products from the US began to flood into Mexico. –This forced them Mexican farmers to charge LESS for their crops. –How do you think this would affect them? –Also upset about... Changes in the government had affected land ownership laws. After the Mexican Revolution of 1910, the constitution granted land to the people... No matter how poor they were. Now this was being taken away.
What did the Zapatistas do? –Seized control of 4 major towns in Chiapas. More than 100 people were killed in the fighting between the rebels and government troops. –Government regained control and called for a cease-fire. Negotiations began between the government and rebels.
How has the Zapatista movement impacted Chiapas? –Several political reforms were put into place to improve the lives of Native Americans in Mexico. –Included improvement in the following things... Housing & Education Fair distribution of land Laws ensuring that Native Americans were represented in the national legislature. However... the government has been unable to meet these needs. –So these farmers have formed self-governing communities to take care of themselves. –Many have started their own health and education programs.