3Impact of the Spanish-American War Spanish-American War of 1898USA declared war on Spain to help the 2 remaining Spanish colonies gain their independence. (Cuba and Puerto Rico)Also To protect sugarcane plantations that were owned by American businesses.Results of S-A WarUSA won Spain gave up Cuba and Puerto Rico.Puerto Rico became a US dependency – territory under US control.Cuba became independent but under US control until 1902US played a major role in Cuba after its independence.Americans purchased:Plantations, Sugar Mills, Hotels and CasinosUS military stayed on the island - Guantanamo Bay naval base
4Cuba after the S-A War For the next 50 years . . . Cuba had a series of leaders.Some leaders were elected others were dictators.The people . . .Even though the country was wealthy Most of the people were extremely poor.Continually angry with the government.In the late 1950’s Tried to become a republic by electing a president and representatives.One of the last elections was to take place in 1952.
5Cuban Revolution Fidel Castro vs. Fulgencio Batista in 1952 elections. Free elections did not take place in 1952.Fulgencio Batista staged a coup d’etat (military takeover) because his chances of winning were slim.He proclaimed himself as prime minister and ruled Cuba as a dictator for 6 years.Large amounts of povertyPoor education and health careCastro (a young lawyer) & his army attacked Cuba in 1953.By 1959, Castro and his army forced Batista out of office.Castro named himself as prime minister.The USA supported Batista during this time.
6Aftermath of Revolution Castro promised . . .To bring back free elections & a free pressIncrease foreign investmentNo private businesses would be taken awayINSTEAD . . .Castro set up a Communist system of government similar to the USSRGovernment controlled businesses, farms, schools, etc.Anyone who opposed Castro were killed or put in prisonHe controlled everything.Over 2 years, Castro eliminated multiple things.Took land away from foreign investorsSugar plantations & Cattle ranchesTook control of telephone and utility servicesBanned gambling on the islandAll of these things were American owned.
7Castro also signed a trade deal with the Soviet Union in 1960. This trade deal include both weapons and goods.(Remember The Cold War was during this period in time.)The U.S. broke relations with Cuba in January 1961.Due to the harsh conditions and alliance with the USSRCastro temporarily lifted his ban on people leaving CubaMore than 125,000 Cubans traveled to Florida in an operation known as the Mariel Boatlift.USSR collapsed Cuba lost an important ally and trading partner.Cuba’s economy suffered when the USSR stopped supporting it.The public’s reactionPoor people supported Castro’s policies because he improved health care and education.Wealthy people did not like their property being taken from them.Business owners, doctors, teachers, etc.Hundreds of thousands of Cubans fled Cuba because of Castro’s communist policies Many live in Florida today.
9Modern-Day Rebellion in Mexico Who were the Zapatistas?A rebel group that emerged in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas in 1994.Native American guerrilla movement rising up against the Mexican government.Guerrillaa small group of fighters who use surprise attacks to defeat a stronger force.Called themselves the Zapatista National Liberation ArmyNamed after Emiliano ZapataIndian farmer and hero of the 1910 Mexican RevolutionIn the late 20th century, they were known for harassment and sabotage against the government.
10What did the Zapatistas protest against? They opposed the poverty faced by the Native Americans and other farmers in the Chiapas region of Mexico. (wanted improved rights and living conditions)They began their revolt just hours after NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) was signed on Jan. 1, 1994.NAFTA eliminated the trade barriers and tariffs between the USA, Canada and Mexico.(increase trade between members)Poor Mexican farmers did NOT like NAFTA because cheap corn and other food products from the US began to flood into Mexico.This forced them Mexican farmers to charge LESS for their crops.How do you think this would affect them?Also upset about . . .Changes in the government had affected land ownership laws.After the Mexican Revolution of 1910, the constitution granted land to the people No matter how poor they were. Now this was being taken away.
11What did the Zapatistas do? Seized control of 4 major towns in Chiapas.More than 100 people were killed in the fighting between the rebels and government troops.Government regained control and called for a cease-fire.Negotiations began between the government and rebels.
12How has the Zapatista movement impacted Chiapas? Several political reforms were put into place to improve the lives of Native Americans in Mexico.Included improvement in the following things . . .Housing & EducationFair distribution of landLaws ensuring that Native Americans were represented in the national legislature.However the government has been unable to meet these needs.So these farmers have formed self-governing communities to take care of themselves.Many have started their own health and education programs.