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The Cuban Revolution and Guerrilla Movement in Mexico

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1 The Cuban Revolution and Guerrilla Movement in Mexico
SS6H3: The student will analyze important 20th century issues in Latin America and the Caribbean. Explain the impact of the Cuban Revolution Explain the impact and political outcomes of the Zapatista guerilla movement in Mexico.

2 Independence In Cuba Cuba gained independence from Spain on December 10, 1898. The change from colony to republic was not a smooth one. Wealth generated by sugar production dictated Cuban politics.

3 U.S. Military in Cuba The United States played an important role in Cuba after it gained independence. Many of the plantations and sugar mills were bought by Americans. In addition, Americans purchased many hotels and casinos. This attracted tourists from around the globe. The U.S. military stayed on the island. The Platt Agreement of 1901 allowed the U.S. to build a naval base in Guantánamo Bay.

4 On the Verge of Revolution
In the late 1950s, Fulgencio Batista was ruler of Cuba. He had been elected president at one time, but he later made himself dictator. That meant that he ruled without any controls on his power. Many people in Cuba were unhappy with his rule. Fulgencio Batista Picture from:

5 On the Verge of Revolution
There was much poverty. Education and health care were not good for most Cubans. Fidel Castro led a group of rebels against Batista. Because Batista was so unpopular many followed Castro. Castro defeated the Batista government and made himself dictator in 1959. Fidel Castro Picture from:

6 Castro’s Cuba Castro began right away to organize a communist government. He declared that all the property belonging to Americans now belonged to the government. All farms, factories, and businesses owned by Cubans also became government property. Fidel Castro with soldiers Picture from:

7 Castro’s Cuba Castro had people who supported Batista arrested.
Most were executed by firing squad. Some spent decades in prison. Cubans no longer had the right to protest against the government. Cuban newspapers, radio, and television were shut down. The government became the only source for news. Churches were closed, and all church property was taken by the government.

8 US vs Cuba The United States placed an embargo on Cuban goods.
That meant that Cuba’s sugar cane crop could not be sold to the United States. The Soviet Union became friends with Cuba. They bought the country’s sugar cane each year. They also supplied weapons and other goods to the Cubans. The Soviets helped to educate young Cubans and trained their military. Fidel Castro and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev Picture from:

9 US vs Cuba Castro’s government and the U.S. government did not get along well. The United States did not like having a communist country so close to Florida. Americans who owned land and businesses in Cuba did not like the loss of their property. The United States decided to keep the pressure on Cuba. It did not allow travel by Americans to or from Cuba. It also tried to keep other countries from trading with the Cubans. vs.

10 The Bay of Pigs Cuba tried to spread communism into Latin America.
It supported revolutionary ideas in many countries by providing military training, money, and weapons. April 1961, Cuban exiles—armed, trained, and financed by the U.S.—invaded Cuba at the Bay of Pigs in an attempt to overthrow the government. Castro took command of the Cuban defense forces and drove off the invaders. Map of the Bay of Pigs Map from:

11 Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis, almost started a nuclear war. In 1962, Cuba gave the Soviet Union permission to build a missile launching complex. Missiles launched from the site could reach U.S. cities. U.S. President John F Kennedy demanded the missiles be removed. A tense time followed. The Soviets agreed to remove the missiles, and the United States said it would not invade Cuba. U.S. President John F. Kennedy Picture from:

12 Cuba/U.S. Relations Relations between the United States and Cuba have not improved much in the past fifty years. There is still an embargo on goods from Cuba. Americans, however, can send money to their families in Cuba. In the early 1980s and again in the 1995, there were periods in which large numbers of Cubans escaped their island for America. Cuban boat people Picture from:

13 Cuba/U.S. Relations The United States had been accepting Cubans who escaped. However, thousands were being “allowed” to escape. This caused a strain on relations between the two countries. In 1994, the United States agreed to allow 20,000 Cubans a year to enter the United States. The Cubans agreed to stop allowing so many Cubans to “escape.” Chart of Cuban emigration From:

14 Castro Update After a decline in health, Fidel Castro gave up the Cuban presidency on February 19, His brother, Raul, is now the Cuban leader. There is much speculation about whether or not Fidel Castro is actually alive today.

15 Castro Resigns…

16 Summary What was the role of the USA in Cuban after their Independence from Spain? Describe life in Cuba under the rule of Batista? What changes did Castro make to Cuba upon his rise to power? How did the role of the USA change after Castro took control? Name and describe the two major Cold War events that involved the USA and Cuba. What impact has the Cuban Revolution had on Cuba and the United States? Fidel is no longer the dictator of Cuba. Who now rules Cuba? Do you believe Cubans are any better off? Why or why not. Look at the Political Cartoon. Describe what you see in the cartoon and what you believe the author is trying to say to the reader.

17 Guerrillas in Mexico The people of the southern state of Chiapas are among Mexico’s poorest. The land of Chiapas, however, is among Mexico’s richest. More than half of Mexico’s hydroelectric power comes from Chiapas. Natural gas and oil are found there, and much coffee is grown. Yet, the resources go north to fuel other Mexican states. Map of Mexican state of Chiapas From:

18 The Indigenous People Those hardest hit by poverty in Chiapas are the people of Mayan descent. Many of them do not speak Spanish. Most of them are small-scale farmers. They have less access to education and healthcare than most other Mexicans. When Mexico’s leaders run for election or make public policies, they tend to ignore the needs and voices of the indigenous. Indigenous people of Chiapas Picture from:

19 The Indigenous people Much of the best land for farming and ranching is controlled by a few wealthy landowners. They often act with the Mexican government in ways to benefit themselves. The population of Chiapas has been growing.

20 Zapatistas The Zapatistas are a group of Mexicans who support improved rights and living conditions for Mexico’s indigenous people. The group is named after Emiliano Zapata, who lived in the early twentieth century and fought for the rights of native people. In the late twentieth century; the Zapatistas were known for harassment and sabotage against the government. Masked Zapatista guerillas Picture from:

21 NAFTA On January 1, 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect. This was an agreement to allow free trade between Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Some people in Mexico did not like this plan. They thought that NAFTA would allow cheap farm goods to come into Mexico from the United States. The farmers in Mexico would not be able to compete with the cheaper food. Picture from:

22 NAFTA On the day NAFTA took effect, a group of Mexicans called the Zapatistas took over several towns in their part of Mexico. The army was sent in to remove the Zapatistas. Fighting lasted for several weeks. A cease-fire finally ended the fighting. The Zapatistas did not go away. Zapatistas Picture from:

23 Zapatistas Today Agreements between the Zapatistas and the government have not solved the problems the people have with the government. The Zapatistas have control of some small parts of southern Mexico. The Zapatistas argue that the indigenous people of Mexico need more help to improve health care, housing, education, and jobs. Zapatistas in traditional Chiapas clothing Picture from:

24 Summary What is the difference between the people of the Chiapas and the land in which they live on? What group of people live in the Chiapas? What problems do they face? What is the Zapatista guerrilla movement in Mexico? What is NAFTA? What impact have the Zapatistas had n Mexico? Do you believe the Zapatistas have been successful in Southern Mexico? Why or Why not.

25 Task Students will use the SS6H3 terms to conduct research. Each student will be assigned an event that occurred during the Cuban Revolution or something related to the Zapatista guerilla movement. Guided by the rubric, students will write a news headline and article covering their event. They will also find one picture that will be placed in the article. The picture must be related to their topic. It is preferred that final copies are typed either in MS Word, Power Point, or Publisher. In special situations a hand written one will be accepted. Students will then present their article to the class.

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