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500-1500. Unlike the Mesoamerican and S. American natives, the N.A. tribes never build empires Tribes in the NW were the first to display their wealth/rank.

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Presentation on theme: "500-1500. Unlike the Mesoamerican and S. American natives, the N.A. tribes never build empires Tribes in the NW were the first to display their wealth/rank."— Presentation transcript:

1 500-1500


3 Unlike the Mesoamerican and S. American natives, the N.A. tribes never build empires Tribes in the NW were the first to display their wealth/rank The potlatch was a celebration usually thrown by the wealthy for the people

4 In the west, tribes adapted to their environment Irrigation for water Cliff dwellings (Mesa Verde) The Anasazi would build large, apartment style communities (pueblos) that had up to 600 rooms (Pueblo Bonito)

5 From the Mississippi and East Around 700 BC The huge earthen mounds were like pyramids (tombs for the leaders filled with gifts) Could also be used for religious ceremonies Trade networks existed between the native groups as far as Mesoamerica

6 While not building empires, the natives did use alliances Best example – Iroquois League Spoke related languages Lived in the Northeastern Woodlands Promoted joint defense and cooperation

7 Trade was the most common link between native groups Chinook established a marketplace where people from all over the West brought their goods The Mississippian had a trade network including everything in the US east of the Rockies

8 Nearly all tribes worshipped nature spirits with one “Great Spirit” above all others Most gave great respect to the land nobody owned the land; land was sacred Society was typically organized around the family Totems were used to identify your clan


10 As we entered the AD era, Central America began creating civilizations The Mayan people were among the first Southern Mexico to Central America By 250 AD, they were pushing forward

11 Mayan Classic Period 250-900 AD Built huge cities Each was ruled by a god- king and was a religious center People lived in communities on the edges Ruled independently, the city-states were linked only by trade/alliances

12 Farming led to the growth of wealth in individuals, which led to a class system King – passed on to son Nobles – priests and warriors Merchants – special skills peasants

13 Plays a significant role on Mayan life Polytheistic (based on nature) Corn, death, rain, and war Good and evil Lots of different ways of worshipping Offerings (sometimes human) and body modification were most common

14 Gods ruled on a schedule (handed it on to another when their time was up) Religion led to the development the calendar 2 calendars that had different significances that affected many aspect of lives (farming, war, crowning new leaders) Based on observing the planets, sun, and moon 17 seconds off of our calendar

15 Most advanced writing in the Americas 800 hieroglyphic symbols (glyphs) that represented words/sounds Used to record history, pass on stories, and make calendars Recorded history into a bark- paper book known as a codex (only 3 still exist) Other books exist, but are informal accounts

16 Late 800s, Mayan cities were suddenly abandoned Taken over by warriors (Toltecs) who drastically changed the culture Theories Mayan civil war disrupted trade, made them weak Environment was overworked


18 Preceded by Olmec and Zapotec Nestled in the mountains of Mexico, is has lakes, resources, and fertile soil This would be the center of their empire

19 Teotihuacan will be the first major city-state Population reached over 150,000 1 central avenue with more than 20 pyramids dedicated to gods Teotihuacan was the center of trade for all of central America Obsidian was their most valuable item By 750, it was abandoned

20 Took 150 years for a new culture to take over Built pyramids/temples to their gods Extremely warlike God demanded blood and human sacrifice Topiltzin will try to reform the religion using Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent) This becomes a legend after he is forced out and will come back to haunt them Power is gone by 1200

21 Moving throughout Mexico, the Mexica (Aztecs) people were poor nomads that made great mercenaries They are given a sign from their god on to build Tenochtitlan in 1325

22 They grew steadily In 1428, they will merge with the Texcoco and Tlacopan city-states to create the Triple Alliance They continued to expand using military force Pay tribute and not much changed Refuse to obey and you would be crushed

23 At its peak, the Aztec nobility consisted of gov. officials, priests, and military leaders Beneath them were the commoners (merchants, artisans, soldiers, and farmers) and the slaves (conquered peoples) Above everyone else was the emperor who ruled absolutely

24 Had about 1000 gods Adopted a lot of previous cultures gods (Quetzalcoatl) Ceremonies were elaborate to win the favor of the gods

25 Responsible for the sun rise and set, the Sun God is most important To be strong enough to rise, he demanded human blood sacrifice Thousands/year were sacrificed Usually used slaves, criminals, people “offered” as tribute, and mostly conquered peoples

26 1502, Montezuma II takes power Called for more sacrifices as the empire grew larger Many provinces rebelled in anger over sacrifices He tried to limit government/sacrifices, but it was too late. People felt that the gods were angry with the Aztec leaders


28 Built on the traditions of the Chavin, Moche, and the Nazca They had been mountainous but eventually settled into the Valley of Cuzco

29 Began his reign in 1438 The Incan Empire will grow quickest under his leadership 80 provinces with 16 million people Used diplomacy and military strength Many will give up without resistance Incans tried to gain loyalty even of the conquered people

30 The empire was divided into units Governed by bureaucracy Roads connected the cities The Quechua language was spoken by all Schools educated people about their culture

31 The Incans built cities in conquered peoples lands using their style of architecture Reminded conquered people who was in charge Master stonemasons All roads led to Cuzco

32 Exercised complete control Little private commerce Society was like the welfare state (socialism), you provide for the state, the state will provide for you. This kept people loyal People were grouped (ayllu). If a group resisted Incan control, they would be moved The greatest demand from the government was the mita (labor tribute) Farmed, built crafts, built public works

33 Most important was the road system 14000 miles of roads/bridges through the rocky terrain Could be paved or just a path Guesthouses could be found along the path Even had a postal service using a system of runners Like the Romans, they were very skilled engineers

34 Never had a writing system Everything was memorized For numbers, they used the quipu (knotted strings) Colors represented topic, knots were the numbers

35 Had fewer gods than the Aztecs, but gods were still based on nature spirits Most Important: Creator and sun god (the king is his descendant)

36 Peaked in the early 1500s with Huayna Capac Upon his death, the empire was divided among his sons They fought a civil war not long after that tore the empire apart

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