Presentation on theme: "NEXT Mask from Teotihuacán, Mexico. People and Empires in the Americas, 500–1500 Societies in the Americas range from small tribal bands to the vast empires."— Presentation transcript:
NEXT Mask from Teotihuacán, Mexico. People and Empires in the Americas, 500–1500 Societies in the Americas range from small tribal bands to the vast empires of the Maya, the Aztecs, and the Inca.
NEXT People and Empires in the Americas, 500–1500 Map SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 North American Societies Maya Kings and Cities The Aztecs Control Central Mexico The Inca Create a Mountain Empire Chart
NEXT Section 1 North American Societies Complex North American societies are linked to each other through culture and economics.
NEXT Complex Societies in the West North American Societies Regional Differences North American cultures less complex than other American cultures Cultures of Abundance Pacific Northwest—from Oregon to Alaska—rich in resources People rely on both sea and land resources for food Plentiful resources lead to society with differences in wealth In potlatch ceremony, wealthy people give gifts to demonstrate status SECTION 1 Continued... Map
NEXT continued Complex Societies in the West SECTION 1 Accomplished Builders Desert Southwest is harsher environment than that of Pacific Coast Hohokam of central Arizona use irrigation to grow corn, beans, squash Use of pottery shows contact with Mesoamerica Anasazi, to the north, build pueblos—villages of stone, adobe, clay Pueblos abandoned around 1200; descendents of Anasazi—Pueblo peoples Hopi and Zuni continue Anasazi customs; create trade goods Image
NEXT Mound Builders and Other Woodland Cultures SECTION 1 The Mound Builders Peoples who live east of Mississippi River in woodland areas Adena and Hopewell peoples build mounds for burials, ceremonies Mississippian—last Mound Builder culture, from 800 to 1500s Cahokia, leading city, has as many as 30,000 people Northeastern Tribes Build Alliances Iroquois—five allied tribes of eastern Great Lakes Goals of Iroquois League: joint defense and cooperation Image Map
NEXT Cultural Connections SECTION 1 Trading Networks Tie Tribes Together Mississippian trade network: Rockies to Atlantic, Great Lakes to Gulf Religion Shapes Views of Life Most Native Americans believe in many sacred spirits Beliefs also include respect for land as source of life Image Shared Social Patterns Family is basis for social organization; some organize into clans Totems—natural object that person, family, or clan identifies with Totem is symbol of unity of family, clan, or group
NEXT The Maya develop a highly complex civilization based on city-states elaborate religious practices. Section 2 Maya Kings and Cities
NEXT Maya Create City-States Maya Kings and Cities The Land of the Maya Maya live in southern Mexico and northern Central America Land, vegetation of this region varies Maya culture influenced by Olmec civilization SECTION 2 Urban Centers In Classic Period (250 to 900) Maya build spectacular cities Cities, like Tikal, have pyramids, temples, palaces, stone carvings Each has a court where ritual ball game is played Continued... Map Image
NEXT continued Maya Create City-States Agriculture and Trade Support Cities Cities linked by alliances, trade Farming maize, beans, squash is foundation of Maya life Maya use different farming techniques Kingdoms Built on Dynasties Farming success leads to rise of social classes King is leader, holy figure; priests, warriors at top of social class Middle class: merchants, artisans; bottom: peasants SECTION 2
NEXT Religion Shapes Maya Life The Importance of Religion Maya believe in many gods, who could be good, evil, or both Each day is a god whose behavior could be predicted with calendars SECTION 2 Religious Practices Many ways of worshiping: prayer, offerings, giving blood Maya also make human sacrifices to please gods and balance world Continued...
NEXT continued Religion Shapes Maya Life Math and Religion Religion leads to advances in calendar, math, astronomy Maya use two calendars: one religious (260 days), one solar (365 days) Use calendars to find best days for life activities Written Language Preserves History Writing system has 800 glyphs—symbols Use writing to record history in a codex—bark-paper book Popul Vuh—famous codex that contains Maya story of creation Image SECTION 2
NEXT Mysterious Maya Decline The End of the Maya In late 800s, Maya abandon cities; cause for abandonment unknown Signs of social problems: -In 700s, fighting among many Maya city-states -Population growth, over-farming might have hurt environment -By 1500s, Maya live in small, weak city-states SECTION 2
Section 3 The Aztecs Control Central Mexico Through alliances and conquest, the Aztecs create a powerful empire in Mexico. NEXT
The Valley of Mexico Geography Mountain basin 7,500 feet above sea level, large lakes, fertile soil Teotihuacán and Toltec settle in valley, develop civilizations SECTION 3 An Early City-State Teotihuacán city-state rises in first century A.D. At peak, in 500s, city has up to 200,000 people Serves as center of trade, especially of obsidian— volcanic glass City quickly declines; by 750 is abandoned Image The Aztecs Control Central Mexico Continued... Map
NEXT Toltecs Take Over About 900, Toltecs rise to power; rule for about 300 years A warlike people, they rule by conquest They worship fierce war god and offer human sacrifices Toltec ruler Topiltzin tries to change religion, end human sacrifice Encourages worship of Quetzalcoatl— “Feathered Serpent”—a new god He is exiled to Yucatán Peninsula; by early 1200s, Toltec rule ends continued The Valley of Mexico SECTION 3
NEXT The Aztec Empire Arrival of the Aztecs Aztecs (or Mexica) arrive around 1200, begin working as soldiers By own legend, a god leads them to found city of Tenochtitlán Aztecs Grow Stronger Triple Alliance—1428 agreement of Aztec and two other city-states By early 1500s, Aztecs have large empire and rule 5–15 million people Power comes from tribute resulting from conquests SECTION 3 Continued...
NEXT Nobles Rule Aztec Society Noble class—military leaders, officials, priests— rules Aztec society Nobles own vast estates, live life of wealth and luxury Commoners: merchants, artisans, soldiers, farmers Lowest class: enslaved people Emperor’s power is absolute, lives in palace, is revered continued The Aztec Empire SECTION 3
NEXT Tenochtitlán: A Planned City Extraordinary Urban Center Causeways connect island city to mainland areas Canals enable people to carry goods to city and its huge main market Chinampas, floating islands, used to grow crops Central area has palaces, temples, government buildings SECTION 3 Interactive
NEXT Religion Rules Aztec Life Many Gods Religion includes 1,000 gods, many adopted from other peoples Religious Practices Center of religion is public ceremonies to win gods’ favor Many religious festivals throughout year SECTION 3 Sacrifices for the Sun God Most important rituals are for sun god, Huitzilopochtli He needs human sacrifices to be strong Aztecs engage in war to provide captives for these sacrifices
NEXT Problems in the Aztec Empire A New Ruler In 1502, Montezuma II becomes emperor; he calls for more tribute These sacrifices lead to revolt in outlying areas Emperor tries to make life easier, but Aztecs worry about future Soon after, Spanish arrive SECTION 3 Image
NEXT Section 4 The Inca Create a Mountain Empire The Inca build a vast empire supported by taxes, governed by a bureaucracy, and linked by extensive road systems.
NEXT The Inca Build an Empire The Inca Create a Mountain Empire Incan Beginnings Inca live first in high plateau of Andes Mountains By 1200s, they have a kingdom in Valley of Cuzco Inca believe that their ruler is descended from sun god, Inti Pachacuti Builds an Empire Pachacuti, a powerful and ambitious emperor, takes control in 1438 Under Pachacuti, Inca conquer lands holding 16 million people Inca use diplomacy and military force to achieve conquests SECTION 4 Map
NEXT Incan Government Creates Unity Organized Rule Inca divide conquered lands into smaller units to govern easily Make Quechua official language of entire empire SECTION 4 Incan Cities Show Government Presence Inca build cities with same architecture for government buildings Capital is Cuzco, which has temples, plazas, palaces Inca are very skilled builders Continued... Image
NEXT Incan Government Inca government controls economy and society Use ayllu—extended family group—to control how people live, work Divides society into groups of 10; 100; 1,000; 10,000 Chain of command stretches from central government to smallest unit Demands mita—requirement that people work for state Cares for the aged and disabled continued Incan Government Creates Unity SECTION 4 Continued...
NEXT Public Works Projects Government creates public works, including 14,000-mile road network Runners carry messages along the roads to different places continued Incan Government Creates Unity SECTION 4 Government Record-Keeping Inca do not develop system of writing Use quipu—set of knotted strings—as accounting device Might also have had elaborate two-calendar system
NEXT Religion Supports the State Inca Gods Inca have fewer gods than Aztecs Creator god and sun god are most important SECTION 4 Religious Practices Priests draft young women to assist in ceremonies Some young men also become specialized religious workers Great Cities Cuzco has magnificent Temple of the Sun decorated in gold Other cities might have had religious importance as well
NEXT Discord in the Empire Problems Arise In early 1500s, Inca Empire reaches its height under Huayna Capac Capac dies, perhaps of smallpox, while touring newly conquered Ecuador In 1520s, his sons Atahualpa and Huascar split empire Atahualpa wants control of whole empire and begins civil war This war weakens Inca state just before Spanish arrive SECTION 4
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