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People and Empires in the Americas

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Presentation on theme: "People and Empires in the Americas"— Presentation transcript:

1 People and Empires in the Americas 900-1500

2 Vocabulary Glyph: A symbolic picture-used as a part of a writing system Codex: Book with pages (flip book) Papol Vuh: Mayan creation story Obsidian: Volcanic glass/very sharp Quetzalcoatl: Feather Serpent. Montezuma II: Last ruler of the Aztec Empire. Weakened the empire. Pachacuti: First Incan Kingdom ruler. Conquered all of Peru. Quipu: Knotted strings that could be used to record data Machu Picchu: Hidden Incan city. Excavated in 1912 (Andes Mts.)

3 Mayan Kings and Cities Chapter 16:2

4 Maya Create Urban Centers
Located on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico Golden Age from Built pyramids over 200 feet tall

5 Mayan Kings and Cities Agriculture and Trade Support Cities
Cities were independent, but linked through trade and alliances Grew maize, beans, and squash Kingdoms built on dynasties King was worshipped as a god Social Classes Priests/warriors upper class, peasants on the bottom

6 Religion Shapes Mayan Life
Religious Practices Believed in many gods (polytheistic) Offered food, flowers, incense, and blood to gods as sacrifices Math Develops to Support Religion Were advanced mathematicians and astronomers Figured out the length of the solar year Used astronomy to calculate which god was most powerful on a certain day

7 Mayan Decline Mayans: Rise and Fall
Written Language Preserves History Used glyphs to represent words or syllables Histories written in a codex Mayan Decline By late 800’s, Mayan cities began to be abandoned Civil war and disruption of trade led to downfall of Maya Only a few weak city-states remained by 1500’s

8 Main Idea Questions What was the basis of Mayan life?
Why was the calendar important for the Mayan religion? What three explanations have been given for the collapse of the Mayan civilizations?

9 The Aztec Control Central Mexico
Chapter 16:3

10 The Aztecs Control Central Mexico
The Valley of Mexico Teotihuacán: An Early City-State City contained 125,000 people Traded obsidian, a material used to make weapons City abandoned in 750

11 The Aztecs Build an Empire
Aztecs Grow Stronger Founded capital city in 1325 at Tenochtitlan Power was based on military conquest and tributes from conquered people Nobles Rule Aztec Society Government officials, priests, and military leaders were top of society Middle was commoners, bottom was slaves Tenochtitlan: A Planned City Had largest marketplace in the world Home to 200,000 people Great Temple was the center of the city


13 Religion, the Center of Aztec Life
Sacrifices for the Sun God Any Volunteers? Aztecs believed that the sun would rise only if they gave human sacrifices Thousands of prisoners of war were executed

14 Problems in the Aztec Empire
Montezuma II Called for more tribute and sacrifice from conquered provinces Led to rebellions which weakened the empire Spanish arrive on the coast


16 Main Idea Questions On what was Teotihuacan’s power and wealth based on? How did the Aztecs rule their empire? Why did the Aztecs think it was necessary to make blood scarifies to their “Sun God?”

17 The Inca Build A Mountain Empire
Chapter 16:4

18 The Inca Come to Power Incan Beginnings
Formed a small kingdom in southern Peru 1200 Pachacuti Builds an Empire 1438 Conquered all of Peru, empire stretched 2,500 miles Used military strength and diplomacy to conquer other people Were kind rulers to conquered people

19 Incan Government Creates Unity
Roads Link the Empire Built 14,000 miles of roads through mountains and deserts System of runners sent messengers throughout kingdom Guest houses along the roads to house travelers State Controls the Economy Government regulated what crops were produced where Produced grain, corn, and potatoes Government Keeps Records Never developed a written language Used accounting device known as quipu to keep track of numbers

20 Incan Roads Unites The Incan Empire

21 Machu Picchu

22 Religion Supports the State
Polytheistic Religion Worshipped creator god, sun god, and several other nature gods Revolved around animal sacrifice, and exchange of goods Built temples to sun god, encased in gold

23 Main Idea Questions How were the Inca able to conquer such a vast empire? What methods did the Inca use to create unity among the diverse peoples in the empire? What role did the mita play in the building of the Incan Empire?

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