2 VocabularyGlyph: A symbolic picture-used as a part of a writing systemCodex: Book with pages (flip book)Papol Vuh: Mayan creation storyObsidian: Volcanic glass/very sharpQuetzalcoatl: Feather Serpent.Montezuma II: Last ruler of the Aztec Empire. Weakened the empire.Pachacuti: First Incan Kingdom ruler. Conquered all of Peru.Quipu: Knotted strings that could be used to record dataMachu Picchu: Hidden Incan city. Excavated in 1912 (Andes Mts.)
4 Maya Create Urban Centers Located on the Yucatan Peninsula in MexicoGolden Age fromBuilt pyramids over 200 feet tall
5 Mayan Kings and Cities Agriculture and Trade Support Cities Cities were independent, but linked through trade and alliancesGrew maize, beans, and squashKingdoms built on dynastiesKing was worshipped as a godSocial ClassesPriests/warriors upper class, peasants on the bottom
6 Religion Shapes Mayan Life Religious PracticesBelieved in many gods (polytheistic)Offered food, flowers, incense, and blood to gods as sacrificesMath Develops to Support ReligionWere advanced mathematicians and astronomersFigured out the length of the solar yearUsed astronomy to calculate which god was most powerful on a certain day
7 Mayan Decline Mayans: Rise and Fall Written Language Preserves HistoryUsed glyphs to represent words or syllablesHistories written in a codexMayan DeclineBy late 800’s, Mayan cities began to be abandonedCivil war and disruption of trade led to downfall of MayaOnly a few weak city-states remained by 1500’s
8 Main Idea Questions What was the basis of Mayan life? Why was the calendar important for the Mayan religion?What three explanations have been given for the collapse of the Mayan civilizations?
10 The Aztecs Control Central Mexico The Valley of MexicoTeotihuacán: An Early City-StateCity contained 125,000 peopleTraded obsidian, a material used to make weaponsCity abandoned in 750
11 The Aztecs Build an Empire Aztecs Grow StrongerFounded capital city in 1325 at TenochtitlanPower was based on military conquest and tributes from conquered peopleNobles Rule Aztec SocietyGovernment officials, priests, and military leaders were top of societyMiddle was commoners, bottom was slavesTenochtitlan: A Planned CityHad largest marketplace in the worldHome to 200,000 peopleGreat Temple was the center of the city
18 The Inca Come to Power Incan Beginnings Formed a small kingdom in southern Peru 1200Pachacuti Builds an Empire 1438Conquered all of Peru, empire stretched 2,500 milesUsed military strength and diplomacy to conquer other peopleWere kind rulers to conquered people
19 Incan Government Creates Unity Roads Link the EmpireBuilt 14,000 miles of roads through mountains and desertsSystem of runners sent messengers throughout kingdomGuest houses along the roads to house travelersState Controls the EconomyGovernment regulated what crops were produced whereProduced grain, corn, and potatoesGovernment Keeps RecordsNever developed a written languageUsed accounting device known as quipu to keep track of numbers
22 Religion Supports the State Polytheistic ReligionWorshipped creator god, sun god, and several other nature godsRevolved around animal sacrifice, and exchange of goodsBuilt temples to sun god, encased in gold
23 Main Idea QuestionsHow were the Inca able to conquer such a vast empire?What methods did the Inca use to create unity among the diverse peoples in the empire?What role did the mita play in the building of the Incan Empire?