7Geography Promotes Civilization Fertile area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers became site of world’s first civilizationFertile Crescent well suited for agricultureFarming in Mesopotamia posed challenges:If water levels too high, crops washed awayIf water levels too low, crops diedPeople developed methods to control water:Basins, canals, and dikesOrganization: assigning jobs, allocating resources
8Religion and Government SumerShaped life in city-statesPolytheism: worship of many godsPriests had high status and were the first rulersWar chiefs began to rule as kingsDynasty: series of rulers from one familyReligion and Government
10Sumerian Culture Writing Math and Sciences The Arts Trade and Society Cuneiform: Sumerian writingBusiness accounts and recordsLaw, grammar, literatureScribesMath and SciencesSystem based on number 60GeometryMay have been the first to use the wheelInvented the plowBasic surgeryThe ArtsArches, ramps, columnsSculptureCylinder sealsTrade and SocietyTraded for wood and metalsSocial hierarchyDistinct male/female roles
11Empires in Mesopotamia Each conquering invader adapted aspects of Sumerian culture.Thus Sumerian civilization continued to influence life in Mesopotamia.Sargon I:Around 2350 BC, created first permanent armyConquered Sumer and northern MesopotamiaEstablished world’s first empire, which lasted about 100 yearsSumerian culture spread far beyond Tigris and Euphrates valleysSargon’s EmpireHammurabi became king in 1792 BCUnited all of MesopotamiaAble ruler and administratorHammurabi’s Code:282 laws covering everything from trade to murderWritten for all to seeBabylon became Mesopotamia’s greatest cityThe Babylonian Empire
13Sumer - Sumerians (Kuwait) ca. 3500 to 3000 BC. (ca. = circa) Sumer gave us the city-state.Define: city-statePolitical unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands. Each city state has its own government, even when it shares a culture with neighboring city states.Sumer - Sumerians (Kuwait) ca to 3000 BC. (ca. = circa)
14Sumerian Writing: cuneiform .Sumerian Writing: cuneiformCuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet.
15Sumerians invented: Brick technology Wheel Base 60 – using the circle degreesTime – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute12 month lunar calendararchrampziggurat
17“If a man stole the property of church or state, that man shall be put to death; also the one who received the stolen goods from his hand shall be put to death.”The laws governed such things as lying, stealing, assault, debt, business partnerships, marriage, and divorce. In seeking protection for all members of Babylonian society, Hammurabi relied on the philosophy of equal retaliation, otherwise known as “an eye for an eye.”
18Because of the geography of the area. Ch. 2 Sect. 2What did Herodotus mean when he said that Egypt is the “gift of the Nile?”Nile RiverBecause of the geography of the area.Sahara Desert
20The Geography of Egypt Environmental Challenges • Light floods reduce crops, cause starvation• Heavy floods destroy property; deserts isolateand protect EgyptiansUpper Egypt and Lower Egypt• River area south of First Cataract is elevated,becomes Upper Egypt• Cataract—where boulders turn Nile River intochurning rapids• River area north, including Nile delta, becomesLower Egypt• Delta—land formed by silt deposits at mouth ofriver; triangularNEXT
22Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.
23Geography and Early Egypt The NileMost important physical feature in Egypt4,000 miles long; flows through the Sahara DesertWithout the Nile’s waters, no one could live there.Geography of EgyptThe Nile flooded every yearPredictable floodwaters with spring rainsLeft rich, black siltNarrow band of fertile soilBecame home of Egyptian civilization
24Geographical Features Egypt’s most fertile soil in Nile DeltaSilt deposits at mouth of riverBlack Land of rich arable soilRed Land unlivable but afforded protectionDeltaNile afforded protection itselfFlowed through cataracts to the southCurrents and waterfalls made sailing impossibleNot an easy invasion routeCataracts
25How did geography affect where the early Egyptians lived? Draw ConclusionsHow did geography affect where the early Egyptians lived?Answer(s): They lived in a narrow strip of fertile land where they could raise crops. It was surrounded by inhospitable desert, which would not easily support life.
26Egypt Unites into a Kingdom King Narmer Creates Egyptian Dynasty• Villages of Egypt ruled by two kingdoms—LowerEgypt, Upper Egypt• King Narmer unites them around 3000 B.C.; makesMemphis capital• Establishes first Egyptian dynastyPharaohs Rule as Gods• To the Egyptians, kings are gods; Egyptian godkings called pharaohs• Pharaohs control religion, government, army,well-being of kingdom• Government based on religious authority—theocracyContinued . . .NEXT
27Egyptians invented: Hieroglyphics Pyramids Geometry Advances in medicine and surgery
29Religion and Life •Egyptians believe in 2,000 gods and goddesses—polytheistic•Re is sun god, Osiris, god of the dead; goddessIsis is ideal woman• Believe in life after death; person judged by deeds at death
30Egyptian WritingIn hieroglyphics writing system, picturesrepresent ideasPaperlike sheets made from papyrus reeds used for writingPapyrus is one of the first examples of paper. It is created from reeds growing along the Nile River.
31Hieroglyphics Sacred Carving Early Egyptian writing found on tombs was indecipherable.HieroglyphicsSacred CarvingNo one could read these sacred carvings until Napoleon invaded Egypt and his archaeologists found the Rosetta Stone.
32In ancient Egypt, scribes used hieroglyphs to record state documents and important historical events. Hieroglyphs with religious purposes also were painted on tomb walls and wooden coffins, such as these hieroglyphs from the tomb of Queen Amonherkhepsef, located in the Valley of the Queens.
33The ancient Egyptians decorated tombs with paintings and reliefs to ensure that the deceased spent eternity in a comfortable and familiar environment. This relief, from the 5th Dynasty (2465 bc-2323 bc), shows the deceased seated at a table stacked with offerings of food.
36Ch. 2 Sect. III Review 1. Which direction does the Nile flow? North 2. What do we call a government based on religion?Theocracy3. What is the Egyptian god king called?Pharoah4. What is the belief in many gods?Polytheism5. What do we call the Egyptian writing?Hieroglyphics
37Indus River Valley (page 53) 2500 BC – 1500 BC Ch. 2 Sect. III Around 2600 B.C. the various regional cultures were united in what is called the Indus Valley Civilization. It is also commonly referred to as the Harappan culture after the town of Harappa (where it was first discovered.)What made the Indus Valley a good place for a civilization?
39Planned Cities on the Indus The Geography of the Indian SubcontinentIndian Subcontinent• Subcontinent—landmass that includes India,Pakistan, and Bangladesh• World’s tallest mountain ranges separate it from restof AsiaRivers, Mountains, and Plains• Mountains to north, desert to east, protect IndusValley from invasion• Indus and Ganges rivers from flat, fertile plain—theIndo-Gangetic• Southern India, a dry plateau flanked by mountains• Narrow strip of tropical land along coastContinued . . .NEXT
40The Geography of the Indian Subcontinent Monsoons• Seasonal winds—monsoons—dominate India’sclimate• Winter winds are dry; summer winds bring raincan cause floodingEnvironmental Challenges• Floods along the Indus unpredictable; river canchange course• Rainfall unpredictable; could have droughts orfloodsNEXT
41Civilization Emerges on the Indus Indus Valley Civilization• Influenced an area larger than Mesopotamia orEgyptEarliest Arrivals• About 7000 B.C., evidence of agriculture anddomesticated animals• By about 3200 B.C., people farming in villages alongIndus RiverPlanned Cities• By 2500 B.C., people build cities of brick laid out ongrid system• Engineers create plumbing and sewage systems• Indus Valley called Harappan civilization afterHarappa, a cityNEXT
42What do the planned cities of the Indus Valley people tell us about their culture? High level of cooperation, strong central governmentWhat skills were needed to build these planned cities?Central gov. building materials, engineering and architectural skills
43Harappan Culture Language • Had writing systems of 400 symbols; but scientists can’t decipher itCulture• Harappan cities appear uniform in culture; no great social divisions• Animals important to the culture; toys suggestprosperityNEXT
44• Had thriving trade with other peoples, including Mesopotamia Role of Religion• Priests closely linked to rulers• Some religious artifacts reveals links to modern HinducultureTrade• Had thriving trade with other peoples, includingMesopotamiaHarappan Decline• Signs of decline begin around 1750 B.C.• Earthquakes, floods, soil depletion may havecaused decline• Around 1500 B.C., Aryans enter area and become dominantNEXT
46Excavations at the ancient Harappan and Mohenjo Daro mounds revealed well planned cities and towns built on massive mud brick platforms that protected the inhabitants against seasonal floods. In the larger cities the houses were built of baked brick while at smaller towns most houses were built of sun-dried mud brick. Each city is laid out in a grid pattern and shows signs of stunningly modern plumbing systems.Much writing has been found at these sites, but it has not yet been translated.
47Sect. III Review1.What environmental challenges do the people of the Indus face?Yearly floods, rivers change course, monsoons unpredictable too much rain or not enough.2. Was the geography of Mesopotamia or Egypt more like that of the Indus Valley?Mesopotamia b/c the floods were unpredicable.3. What environmental challenges did the people of the Indus face that the first 2 didn’t?The Monsoons
48Shang China 1600 BC – 1122 BC Ch. 2 Sect. IV Lack of contact with foreigners helped give the Chinese a strong sense of identity and superiority. They regarded their land as the only civilized land and called it Zhongguo or the Middle Kingdom. This Chinese isolation contributed to the Chinese belief that China was at the center of the earth and the sole source of civilization.
49North, South , East, WestNatural barriers isolated China from all other civilizations.Mongolian PlateauTaklimakan DesertGobi DesertPlateau of TibetPacific OceanHimalaya Mountains
50China: Size and Population Click Red Stars to find more information.China: Size and PopulationChinaUnited States9,596,960 Square area9,629,091 Square area1,284,303,705 Population280,562,489 PopulationThe population of China is more that one billion people, the largest national group in the world. Two-thirds of the Chinese people are farmers, but only 4% of China’s land can be cultivated.In an effort to balance the relationship between land and people, China adopted a “one-couple, one-child” policy in the 1980’s.US Agricultural Production
51River Dynasties in China The Geography of ChinaBarriers Isolate China• Ocean, mountains, deserts isolate China from otherareasRiver Systems• Huang He (“Yellow River”) in north, Yangtze in south• Huang He leaves loess—fertile silt—when it floodsEnvironmental Challenges• Huang He floods can devour whole villages• Geographic isolation means lack of trade; must beself-sufficientChina’s Heartland• North China Plain, area between two rivers, centerof civilizationNEXT
52China’s GeographyThe development of civilization in early China was aided by features like long rivers, fertile soils, temperate climates, and isolated valleys.China’s first civilizations developed in river valleysTwo major rivers supplied water for earliest civilizationsChang Jiang, also called YangziHuang He, or Yellow RiverBoth flow east from Plateau of Tibet to Yellow SeaRivers, Soils, ClimatesAnnual floods deposited rich soil, loess, on flood plainsValley of Huang He particularly fertile due to loessFine dusty soilCarried into China by desert windsLoess
53CropsMost of eastern China covered with fertile soils; some regions better suited than others for growing certain cropsSouthern China—warm, receives plenty of rainfall, excellent region for growing riceFurther north—climate cooler, drier; suitable for grains, wheat, milletIsolationCombination of rivers for irrigation, fertile soil for planting allowed Chinese to thrive, as did China’s relative isolationMountains, hills, desert protected China from invasionHimalaya Mountains separate southern China from India, rest of southern Asia; vast Gobi Desert prevented reaching China from west
54Yellow RiverTakes its name from the vast quantities of loess soil it picks up along its routeLoess is an extremely fine and powder-like soil that gradually builds up in the river bed, raising the river bed and forcing the water out of its established pathYellow River periodically unleashes terrible floods, earning it the nickname “China’s Sorrow”
56Civilization Emerges in Shang Times The First Dynasties• Around 2000 B.C. cities arise; Yu, first ruler of Xia Dynasty• Yu’s flood control systems tames Huang He(“Yellow River”)• Shang Dynasty, 1700 to 1027 B.C., first to leave written recordsEarly Cities• Built cities of wood, such as Anyang—one of its capital cities• Upper class lives inside city; poorer people live outside• Shang cities have massive walls for military defenseNEXT
57What geographic features influenced life in early China? SummarizeWhat geographic features influenced life in early China?Answer(s): Rivers deposited rich soil for farming; mountains, hills, and desert isolated the area.
58TimelineEvent B.C.The Xia (Shay) dynasty emerged. Its leader was a mathemetician named YU. He used irrigation and flood control.Event to 1027 B.C.The Shang dynasty emerges. They were the first family of Chinese rulers to leave written records.
59Event 3 AnyangOne of the capitals of the Shang. Anyang was built mainly of wood.
60Cities: AnyangVast network of walled towns whose local rulers recognized authority of the Shang kingsShang rulers moved their capital six timesCapital at Yin (near modern Anyang) contained a complex of royal palaces and eleven large and lavish royal tombsRoyal tomb at Anyang
61The Development of Chinese Culture Chinese Civilization• Sees China as center of world; views others asuncivilized• The group is more important than the individualFamily• Family is central social institution; respect for parents avirtue• Elder males control family property• Women expected to obey all men, even sonsSocial Classes• King and warrior-nobles lead society and own the landContinued . . .NEXT
62The Development of Chinese Culture Religious Beliefs• Spirits of dead ancestors can affect family fortunes• Priests scratch questions on animal bones andtortoise shells• Oracle bones used to consult gods; supreme god,Shang DiDevelopment of Writing• Writing system uses symbols to represent syllables;not ideas• People of different languages can use same system• Huge number of characters make system difficult tolearnNEXT
65Fish shaped moneyThe Chinese Zhou dynasty (1045?-256 bc) helped pave the way for the unification of China by the subsequent Qin dynasty ( bc). During the Zhou period, farming techniques improved, iron became widely utilized for tools and weapons, and Confucianism and Daoism (Taoism) gained widespread popularity.
66Event 4 Development of Writing The advantage of the Chinese system of writing was that people all over China could learn the same system of writing, even if their spoken language were very different. This helped unify China.
68Zhou and the Dynastic Cycle The Zhou Take Control• In 1027 B.C., Zhou Dynasty takes control of ChinaMandate of Heaven• Mandate of Heaven—the belief that a just ruler haddivine approval• Developed as justification for change in power to Zhou• Dynastic cycle—pattern of the rise and decline ofdynastiesControl Through Feudalism• Feudalism—system where kings give land to nobles inexchange for services• Over time, nobles grow in power and begin to fight eachotherNEXT
69Event B.C. to 256 B.C.Zhou overthrew the Shang and established the Zhou dynasty.Event B.C.Nomads from the north and west sack the Zhou capital only a few royal members survive. They flee to new capital at Luoyang.
70Zhou and the Dynastic Cycle Improvements in Technology and Trade• Zhou Dynasty builds roads, canals to improvetransportation• Uses coins to make trade easier• Produces cast iron tools and weapons; foodproduction increasesA Period of Warring States• Peaceful, stable Zhou empire rules from around 1027to 256 B.C.• In 771 B.C., nomads sack the Zhou capital, murdermonarch• Luoyang becomes new capital; but internal warsdestroy traditionsNEXT
71What geographic features influenced life in early China? SummarizeWhat geographic features influenced life in early China?Answer(s): Rivers deposited rich soil for farming; mountains, hills, and desert isolated the area.