Pest Control What to look for when auditing premises: Rodent pests - signs of activity - baiting strategies Insect pests - signs of activity - potential for disease transfer
Simple Steps to Effective Auditing Pest activity Hygiene/housekeeping Proofing Storage Monitoring points Fly control units Paperwork
Paperwork. Reports…are they clear and accurate? Routine visits….are they frequent and evenly spaced? Follow up visits…. correct intervals? Pesticides….type and use recorded? Risk/COSHH assessments carried out? Signatures….by technician and client?
FREQUENCY OF RODENT BAITING Monthly? Fortnightly? Weekly? Continuous pest activity needs riddance programmes in place Non-infested sites need proofing Not just bait checking
Effective auditing Pest Activity……. (Infestation?) “A breeding population of pests in an area where its presence will be detrimental to humans, their activities or their health”
Home range… Rat … Has a large home range, 15-30 metres, but in rural populations can forage for two or three miles in search of food. House mouse… Very territorial, small home range. Typically 3-6 metres. The common rat has the behavioural characteristic called neophobia. This neophobic re-action makes them very wary of new objects placed in their territory. House mice are less “nervous” and will be more likely to explore new objects.
Signs of Activity …Insects. Live Insects Bodies Damage Contamination Webbing, etc. Trails in dust Disease Check Monitoring Devices where present
Insect Pests in Food Premises (CIEH booklet) Dermestid beetles –skin feeders birds nests dead animals dog and cat food
Larder beetle –Dermestes lardarius –Life cycle –Egg 2 – 9 days (100 – 700 per female) –Larva 35 – 80 days –Pupa 8 – 15 days –Adult 18 months
Insect Pests in Food Premises Tribolium confusum, confused flour beetle. Egg 4- 30 days (950) Larva 15 – 98 days Pupa 5 – 22 days Adult 1.5 yrs
Houseflies –The housefly (Musca domestica) Mechanical vectors of many different and varied pathogens such as –bacteria –protozoa –viruses –helminth eggs
Houseflies –Outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic colitis –Outbreak occurred in nursery school in Japan –an epidemiological survey isolated Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC-O157) EHEC-O157 isolated from houseflies collected in the school EHEC-O157 isolated from patients
Houseflies – The bacteria persist for a number of days but also proliferate – how? –Proliferation of EHEC-O157 takes place on the mouthparts of the fly: kept moist by repeated regurgitation of gut contents, saliva and frequent tasting of liquid nutrients. labellum provides perfect environment for proliferation of EHEC-O157. labellum of flies is usually retracted
Houseflies –These results suggest that houseflies are not simple mechanical vectors of EHECO157. –For this type of transmission, a new technical term, bioenhanced transmission, was coined.
“Drain” flies “Drain” flies F. PsychodidaeOwl midges F. SciaridaeFungus flies F. DrosophilidaeFruit flies F. PhoridaeScuttle flies F. SphaeroceridaeLesser dung flies F. Sepsidae