Presentation on theme: "Pest management in storage Joe Rickman and Martin Gummert, Agricultural Engineering, International Rice Research Institute, Philippines."— Presentation transcript:
Pest management in storage Joe Rickman and Martin Gummert, Agricultural Engineering, International Rice Research Institute, Philippines
:: presentation title Pest of stored grains Insects Pathogens (fungi) Rodents Birds
:: presentation title Ideal Conditions for pest Environment Conditions Temperature 20 - 40 o C Relative humidity 60-70% Mixing grain lots old and new Time Longer storage >no insects
:: presentation title Common Post harvest insects Lesser grain borer (Rhzopertha dominica), Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae), Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella), Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) Lifecycle Beetles 15-18 days Moths 28 - 35 days
:: presentation title Management of insect pests
:: presentation title Harvesting and drying Grain moisture content (12-14%) Minimize cracked and broken grain during processing Dont mix old and new grain
:: presentation title Cleaning and disinfesting the storage system Clean storage - containers, structures, equipment and bags May need to treat with insecticide – Malathion (50EC) at 5ml/20l of water @20ml/m 2, – Fenitrothion (50EC) at 5ml/l water @20ml/m 2, – Deltamethrin (2.5% WP) at 1.5g/l water @20ml/m 2
:: presentation title Sealing the system (low oxygen system)
:: presentation title Live Insect Counts (Insects/ kg) Months Open Storage (bags) Hermetic (5 ton) Hermetic (small) Cold room Air conditioner 0 22.214.171.124.4 323401.401.6 61140.41.603.0 9126.96.36.199.4 1188.8.131.52.0 8.4
:: presentation title Bag dipping (Live Insects/kg) DaysControlDeltamethrin (bag dipped) Phosphine Tablet 010 7.6 253050 537210 988613.6 12548011 1596028.6
:: presentation title Rats Species Black rat or House rat (Rattus rattus) Norway rat or Common rat (Rattus norvegicus) House mouse (Mus musculus) Damage Feed on grain – rats 25 gm of food per day, – mice 3-4 gm per day Spoilage and contamination of grain Damage materials –tarpaulins, bags, electric cables
:: presentation title Rat management Keep the store clean-remove any spilt grain Store bags in tidy stacks set up on pallets, Store any empty or old bags and fumigation sheets on pallets, and if possible in separate stores! Keep the store free of rubbish Bum or bury it! Keep the area surrounding the store free of tall weeds Keep the area in the vicinity of the store free of any stagnant water
:: presentation title Fungi Most common : Aspergillus and Penicillium Grain spoilage and mycotoxins (poisonous) Determined by: Moisture content of the stored grain Temperature Condition of the grain going into storage Length of time the is grain stored and Amount of insect and mite activity in the grain.
:: presentation title Fungi Control Moisture content (12-14%) Heat – dry heat at 65 o C for 6 days – hot water treatment at 52-55 o C Fungicides – Dithane M-45 and Benlate at 3 grams kg - 1.
:: presentation title Storage Hygiene Keep storage areas clean. Clean storage rooms after they are emptied Placing rat-traps and barriers in drying and storage areas. Cats deter and help control rats and mice Inspect storage room regularly to keep it vermin proof. Inspect the stored seeds once a week for signs of insect infestation.