Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Climate Change on Pest Problems"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Effects of Climate Change on Pest Problems Moray AndersonTechnical Director,Killgerm Group.The Effects of Climate Change on Pest Problems
2 Climate change Examples to be discussed: New diseases associating with established insect speciesWest Nile Virus.New invasive insect speciesNew diseases associated with these.Re-emergence of “old” pest speciesMicroclimatic changes.
3 Climate change What is predicted ? Universal increase in temperatures Insect metabolism – temperature dependantSmall changes can have significant effectsLengthening of breeding seasonsChanges in insect distribution geographically
4 Cimex lectularius – Eggs Bedbug life cycle.Cimex lectularius – EggsTemperature (°C)Egg hatching time (days)1349153418212212275 - 6
5 Climate changeNew diseases associating with established insect speciesWest Nile Virus.
7 Mosquito borne disease Disease transmission – summaryDisease causing pathogen ingested with bloodMultiplies in insect gutDevelops in insect gutMigrates into mosquito haemolymph (blood)Transfers to salivary glandsInjected into new host7
21 Conditions in US perfect for distribution of virus West Nile virus is a flavivirusConditions in US perfect for distribution of virusa) susceptible birdsb) insect vectors present - biting birds and other vertebratesc) susceptible horses/humans21
22 WNV in the UK? Level of risk may increase if… Increase in numbers &distribution ofhuman-biting mosquitoesin the UKIntroduction of a moreefficient mosquitovectorWNV in the UK?DoH – surveillance systems for people …… no evidence of WNV infectionLocal bird population examined ….… positive for WNV antibodiesMosquito surveillance ………… all negative for WNVOverall risk of WNV transmission in the UK categorized by DoH as ‘LOW’..Level of risk may increase if…Changes in humanbehaviour, encouraginggreater human/vectorcontactChanges in climateto allow survival ofefficient vector
23 Climate change New invasive species New diseases associated with these.
27 Aedes albopictus Importation into California on “Lucky Bamboo” Spread through import and internal movement of used tyresImportation into California on “Lucky Bamboo”
28 Europe First appearance in Albania in 1979 Since then been reported in:Belgium, Bosnia & HerzegovinaCroatia, France, Germany, GreeceItaly, Malta, Monaco, MontenegroNetherlands, San Marino, SloveniaSpain, Switzerland, Vatican City
30 Imported tyres – into UK (According to “Used Tyre Working Group”)1999: 20,254 tonnes (units 3,116,000)2000: 34,921 tonnes (units 5,372,462)2001: 37,473 tonnes (units 5,765,077)
31 Research: Mosquito breeding in tyre disposal sites in the West Midlands Mosquito breeding potential in disposed tyres in the UKFindingsMosquitoes breeding at all sitesWithin 1m of vegetation: 60% of tyres sampled housed mosquitoesWithin 10m of vegetation, only 3% of tyres had mosquitoes present
47 Bedbug controlWET/DRY bedding: It is the time time taken to reach the required core temperature of 400C - 500C which is vitalWet bedding, it took about 2.5 times longer to reach the required core temperature.
48 Climate change Conclusions New diseases associating with established insect speciesNew insect speciesRe-emergence of “old” pests